quarta-feira, agosto 12, 2009


CHAPTER IX. The Writer's ignorant ridicule of the
Observance of Menses by Women.
That Zoroastrianism is but another name of the aggregate laws of
nature exhaustively in all its various departments, is an undoubted fact
to those who try to understand what a vast amount of knowledge was
covered by the 21 Nasks given by the prophet. All the fundamental
laws of nature, -e.g. the laws of motion, vibration, sound, colour, light,
heat, magnetism, electricity-working on the physical and ultra-physical
states of existence, have been very wonderfully propounded by the
greatest of the world-prophets, Zoroaster. Zoroastrianism will ever
shine out with the advance of modern science in all its spheres, and the
truths respecting the laws of nature propounded in Zoroastrianism will
be verified by everyday scientific inventions. The prophet has taught in
the chapter on "Khastra", laws of eighty-one main types of electricity
working throughout in nature of which the modern physical electricity
generated by means of chemical apparatus is but one type. In the same
way all about magnetism-human, animal, vegetable and mineral
magnetism-the good and evil types of magnetism, helping and retarding
the spiritual progress-is very beautifully propounded by Zoroaster. It is
a misfortune that the community in India have not got in their
possession the complete 21 Nasks of Zoroaster, but we find even in the
meagre extant portions thereof some traces of all this vast knowledge of
the Laws of Nature imparted by the prophet. Almost the whole of the
Vendidad is based on the laws of magnetism, and the Vendidad forms
one individual Nask called “Javit-Shida-Dad,” or the “Anti-Demoniac
Law." The Vendidad inculcates laws of daily observance in order to
save oneself from the evil magnetic influences arising naturally in the
course of living the physical life on earth. A Zoroastrian has to observe
these Laws of Purity taught by the prophet, and by means of such
observance has to set right the Moral Order of the universe transmuting
constantly all the evil influences into good ones.
326 LAWS OF Hamaestara & Hazaosha i.e. Polarity & Duality.
In order to explain clearly all the various activities going on in this
world, the prophet has propounded two fundamental laws--the law of
Duality and the law of Polarity-which are technically termed "Juz” and
“Juft.” “Juz” or law of Polarity or law of Opposites and Contraries
implies the working of two things or forces in opposition to each other
and bringing a certain result. “Juft” or law of Duality or Cooperation
refers to the working of two things or forces in co-operation with each
other and bringing its own result. Nothing under the sun is single or
absolute except the Unspeakable, the Unknowable, the Unthinkable
One who is all Absolute. Hence everything in the universe falls under
the sway of the Laws of " Juz" and “Juft” – the laws of Polarity and
Duality. Both these laws are repeatedly found in the Avesta-the Law of
Juz being termed “Hamaestara” or opposition, and the Law of Juft
being termed “Hazaosha" or co-operation. Both these fundamental
laws of "Hazaosha" and "Hamaestara" -of “Co-operation" and
"Contravention - are at the root of all activities, physical, mental,
moral, spiritual and economic. The effects resulting from the working
of these two laws are classified in Pahlavi as "Asar-i-Roshnih" or
“beneficent forces and effects” and "Asar-i-Tarikih" or "maleficent
forces and effects." The Asar-i-Roshnih or beneficent forces always
help the spiritual progress and unfoldment onward, whereas the "Asari
Tarikih or maleficent effects retard the advancement of the soul and
enhance the infoldment of the soul into matter. The Avesta "Anghra-
Mainyu" or Pahlavi "Ahrman" or "Ganak-Mino" is the Spirit presiding
over “Asar-I-Tairkih,” and is the Arch-demon personified, for it leads
a soul into the narrow path of infoldment. The Avesta “Spenta
Mainyu" or Pahlavi "Spenak Mino" is the Arch-Good-Spirit that
presides over “Asar-i-Roshnih" and it guides the soul on to the
widening path of unfoldment. The rules of Zoroastrian Law meant for
creating the Asar-i-Roshnih or for siding with Spenta Mainyu are
collectively termed "Ashoi" and the ways of life contravening “Ashoi”
and producing the Asar-i-Tarikih, thus taking the soul on the side of
Anghra Mainyu, are known by the name
INVISIBLE FUNCTION OF THE Tarikat-i-Baj-i-Khurashn. 327
"Drujih." "Ashoi" is known in Avesta as “Asha” and "Drujih" is termed
"Druj" or "Drukhsh” in the Avesta. A follower of Zoroastrian law has
always to fight “Druj” by means of the rules of "Asha," and thus help in
the grand work of the unfoldment of his soul every moment of his life on
earth. On account of the inherent law of “Hamaestara” or Juz or Law of
Opposites, the appearance of Druj is inevitable in every walk of life, but
the Druj is to be annihilated or transmuted into Asar-i-Roshnih by the
application of the rules of Asha. All the Avestan "Ashahe Pathao" or
"Tarikats" or canons of Ashoi are meant for this invisible and spiritual
transmutation of Asar-i-Tarikih into Asar-i-Roshnih by the practical
observance of Zoroastrian rules of purity in daily life.
As for instance, food is essential for the sustenance of the vital
heat of physical life, but when food is taken into the mouth and the action
of saliva and the process of mastication are going on, there is given rise to
a number of subtle invisible microbes which collect round about the head
of the man taking the food, and pollute the aura of the man. The
production of microbes is a necessary evil result or Asar-i-Tarikih on
account of the law of Hamaestara or Opposites when the process of eating
takes place, and it is also necessary that food must be taken. Hence a
remedy is prescribed by the prophet Zoroaster-the remedy, which is based
on the law of Staota or colours produced by vibrations of sound and on the
laws of Breath, and Zoroastrian Bacteriology. The Zoroastrian mandate for
saying grace at the time of every meal is very effective in this respect. The
Avesta words recited in the beginning produce a Staotic wall round about
the aura of the person, and he has to remain silent throughout the period of
eating. Thus the microbes that happen to come out of the mouth during the
process of mastication cannot enter the aura on account of the Avesta
manthric vibrationary wall, and being repelled by the wall the microbes
fall down on the ground. The Khastra or electric force of Armaiti, the
genius of earth at once grabs these microbes and changes them into
Khastric manure or electric sustenance as it were, which increases the four
forces of the earth termed in the
328 FULCRUM OF "Khoreh" IN ALL THE Levers of Ashoi-Tarikats.
Avesta Visparad "Payangha" or "Gazia" i.e. growth, "Vastrodataena”
or Namia" i.e. increase, “Hahyaya" or "Musavaria” i.e. formation and
"Fraurvishtra" or “Muvaladia" i.e. kernel-bearing. Hence by means of
the Tarikat-i-Baj-i-Khur-ashn i.e. the canon of saying grace at meal,
the Asar-i-Tarikih or Druji i.e. germs are prevented from destroying
the unseen colours of the aura of the person, and are transmuted into
the four magnetic forces of the soil i.e. into Asar-i-Roshnih. Thus a
follower of Zoroastrian rules of Ashoi always works as a co-worker in
the law of economy of nature, transmuting the naturally arising evil
forces into beneficent ones by the observance of the grand precepts of
Zoroaster. Also by the observance of silence while eating, the germs
are not allowed to come out of the mouth in very large numbers, and
the breath is kept under proper control, which helps to preserve the
vital magnetism of the person and thus strengthens the power of
digestion. The principles of breath and of vital fluid are very much
attended to in the Zoroastrian rules of Holiness, for there is an
inseparable constant mutual relation of “Mithra" or thought,
"Manthra" or word-vibration, “Khoreh” or aura, “Ushtana" or breathenergy,
and "Urvan" or soul etc. The prophet Zoroaster has not
omitted a single item of all the various intricate forces and principles
working in man, when he propounded the Law of unfoldment of the
soul. The physical body must be well cared for, the mental condition
must be well attended to, the magnetic and vital principles must be
fitly preserved in their purity and subtlety, for all these are help-mates
in the grand goal of “Uru” or Spiritual Unfoldment. In all the Tarikats
of Ashoi or rules of Holiness in everyday life of a Zoroastrian, the
prophet has taken the fulcrum of Pahlavi "Khoreh" or Avesta
"Kharenangh", and has based all this mandates on the pivot of
“Khoreh.” A Zoroastrian can never progress in the path of Unfoldment
of soul, unless he pays practical attention to all the Tarikats for the
preservation of the purity of Khoreh. The “Khoreh” acts between
"Tanu" or physical tenement on the one hand, and "Kehrpa" or subtle
magnetic counter-tenement on the other, and the "Urvan" or soul
THE EFFICACY OF THE Tarikat-i-Baj-i-Hajat. 329
for its unfoldment on the fitness and subtlety of "Kehrpa" which in its
turn is acted upon by the subtle or gross nature of Khoreh. It is the
"Khoreh" or personal magnetism that helps a person to keep his
"Mithra" or thoughts on the lines of Asar-i-Roshnih, and the soul is
derailed from the line of unfoldment if it ceases to observe the purity
of Khoreh by means of all the Ashoi Tarikats.
Another instance of Ashoi Tarikat may be noticed, which relates
to the Bqj-i-Hajat, i.e. Observance of silence at the time of the natural
necessity of passing excretions from the body. A person has to recite
certain words before entering a privy, and has to keep his mouth closed
in the privy. He cannot pass the excreta, standing on his feet, and after
coming out he has to recite further Avesta words and thereafter has to
wash his hands and face, and untie and retie the sacred girdle. This
canon of the Baj-i-Hajat is again meant for a preventive measure
against the ill effects of the Drujih or microbes arising from the process
of passing the excreta. These germs are not allowed to penetrate into the
aura of the person on account of the wall made by the Avesta Staota or
Vibration colours.
These microbes are on the contrary given in charge of the earth
where they are utilized by the "Khastra" of the soil as four magnetic
forces of the earth resulting therefrom. Thus this Tarikat of observing
silence and reciting a certain formula before and after the "Hajat" or
process of passing excretions helps one to preserve the Khoreh in its
original best state of subtlety. It is necessary that excretions must be
passed out, and it is natural by the law of "Hamaestara" that germs and
microbes must be produced during this process. But the prophet
Zoroaster has given a preventive measure against the destruction of
Khoreh in this way, for it is the Khoreh which is the main hinge of the
grand work of Spiritual unfoldment.
A third instance of the transmutation of the “Asar-iTarikih” or
"Drujih" into "Asar-i-Roshnih" or "Ashoi" is that of the observance of
certain rules while paring nails and
330 CANONS OF removing hair and nails IN VENDIDAD XVII; 5 & 7.
cropping the hair of the head. The hair and nails are also excretions of
the body and when they are separated from the life of the body, they
become injurious putrefying objects full of worst currents of magnetism
and microbes. Hence the use of the bull's urine or “Gaomaeza" as it is
termed in the Avesta is recommended for application to nails and hair
when they are to be removed from the body, and certain special Avestic
formulae are to he recited which are taught in Vendidad XVII §§ 5 & 7-
one for the paring of nails and the other for cropping the hair. The hair
and nails are not to be thrown about, but are to be buried under-ground,
and after some time these also are transmuted into the four powers of
the soil -growth, increase, formation, and kernel-bearing-Gazia, Namia,
Musavaria and Muvaladia.
In the same way the rules to be observed by males, at the time of
seminal discharges and by females during the period of menstrual
discharge serve as a further instance of fighting the Asar-i-Tarikih by
the help of the Asar-i-Roshnih. What we have to bear in mind
throughout this chapter is –
(i) that the Tarikats of Ashoi, or Canons of Holiness expounded in
the Zoroastrian teachings are based on the natural laws relating to
unseen microbes as well as physical germs and the laws relating to
magnetic purity; and,
(ii) that the unfoldment of the soul depends in the first place upon
the observance of purity and subtlety of the physical body and its
"Khoreh" or personal magnetism, and in the second place upon the
fitness of the "Kehrpa" to respond to higher vibrations constantly
pouring from the spiritual planes of existence.
We shall now refer to the passages in the extant Avesta texts in
which explicit order to annul "Druj" is given by the prophet Zoroaster.
All these references will enable the reader to make out the inner deep
meaning of the term “Asha” which is the diametrically opposite of
"Druja" in the Avesta. We shall take up references from the Gathas,
Vendidad, Yashts, etc., separately: -
(i) Katha ashai drujem dyam zastayo,
Ni him meranzdyai thwahya manthraish senghahya,
Eravaitim sinam davoi dregvasu,
A-ish dvafsheng mazda anashe anstanscha.”
-Ha XLIV ; 14.
“ O Mazda, how shall I deliver Druj or the aggregate force of evil into both the
hands of Asha or aggregate force of goodness, in order to annihilate the same by
means of the Manthra of Thy Words, in order to give a smart blow to the
practitioners-of-druj, so that their delusion and fascinating-fraud may cease to
We see here that the prophet wants to learn the Tarikat or rule by
which to transmute all sorts or Drujih into Ashoi, and thus to annul the
deluding and alluring fascination of the attractions of this world which
are strengthened by the force of Drujih. Unless the soul is saved from
the fangs of this serpentine drujih, und unless it is protected by the
stronghold of Ashoi, it cannot be said to have been marching along the
rails of the Uru or Unfoldmant. Another exactly similar teaching is to
be found in Gatha 30; 8.
(ii) "Atcha yada aesham kaena jamaiti aenangham,
At mazda taibyo Khshathrem Vohu Manangha voividaiti,
Aeyibyo saste Ahura yoi ashai daden ,jastayo drujem.”
- Ha XXX ; 8.
“And when the revenge of these jealous goes out, then Mazda intimates them of
Khshathra through Vohu Manangha, and Ahura teaches those who deliver up druj
into both the hands of Asha.”
Here also the same idea of delivering druj into the hands of Asha,
or fighting all evil forces or Asar-i-Tarikih by means of the good ones
or Asar-i-Roshnih is illustrated, and it is further declared that spiritual
knowledge comes to those alchemists who have already vanquished
Druj out of themselves by means of Asha.
332 Four “Urvanic” Powers RESULTING FROM THE Practice of Ashoi
(iii) “Yada ashem zevim anghen mazdaoscha ahuraongho,
Ashicha armaiti vahishta ishasa manangha
Maibyo Khshathrem aojanghvat yehya vereda vanaema drujem.”
-Ha 31 ; 4.
"When Mazda and the lords are propitiated with ashoi, I desire to have for me
Ashoi or piety, Armaiti or gentle perfection of mind and the best mind with
vigorous Power by means of which we must smite the Druj."
When a soul puts all the rules of Ashoi into practice, the natural
result is the attainment of Ashi and Armaiti or Perfect Wisdom, and
these are accompanied by that Right Will Power which alone can
vanquish the collective force of evil i.e., the Druj. In this paragraph
also we notice that the desire to overcome Druj should be the ideal aim
of all aspiring souls, and the spiritual development resulting in the
qualifications of Ashi-power, Armaiti-power, Vohu-manangha-power
and Khshathravairya-power can be achieved only by a perfect sway
over Druj by means of Asha.
(iv) “Ya raonghyen sravangha vahishtat shyothnat maretano,
Aeibyo mazdao aka mraot yoi geush morenden urvakhsh-ukhti jyotum,
Yaish gerehma ashat varata karapa khshathremcha ishanam drujem.”
Ha 32; 12.
“Ahura Mazda has declared those to be evil persons who by their advice deviate
men from best ways-of-life, who kill the life of the animal with happy ejaculations, on
account of whom the Karap or one deaf to spiritual progress who is of a grasping
nature turns away from Asha with desire for the Druj-power.”
This paragraph informs us that those teachers who make others
deviate from the path of Ashoi or Holiness, and make them inclined
towards Druj or Unseen Evil Force in its various capacities, which
ultimately leads the soul on to the side of Asar-i-Tarikih, are branded as
evil even by Ahura Mazda.
(v) “Tat thwa peresta eresh moi vaocha ahura,
Katha drujem nish ahmat a nish-nashama,
Teng-a ava yoi asrushtoish perenaongho,
Noit ashahya adivyeinti hachemna,
Noit frasaya vangheush chakhnare manangho.”
- Ha 44 ; 13.
Renovation IMPLIES Ultimate Triumph of “Asha” over "Druj" 333
“ O Ahura speak unto me the truth for what I question unto Thee. How are we to
dispel Druj from this entirely, along with those who are full of discountenances, who
are dupes but not followers of Ashoi, who do not love the dissertations of Good Mind."
Those who do not pay attention to religious teachings and even
those who do not practice Ashoi are looked upon as professors of Druja,
and a desire is entertained in this paragraph to remove this Druja in
order to effect a spiritual transmutation of the wicked followers of
Drujih. The idea contained in the Gatha Ha. 44; 13 and 14 is generally
the same -that of removing or repelling Druja in order to re-establish the
jurisdiction of Order Divine or Asha.
(vi) Adâ-zî avâ drûjô avô bavaitî skeñdô spayathrahyâ
At asishtâ ýaojañtê â-hushitôish vanghêush mananghô
Mazdåo ashakhyâchâ ýôi zazeñtî vanghâu sravahî.
-Ha 30 ; 10.
“The power of destructive Druja becomes shattered when those who are born
in good glory attune themselves immediately with the good-abode of Vohu Manangha,
Mazda and Asha.”
Here we notice the ultimate triumph of Good over Evil. Druja at
last becomes vanquished when the soul with its powers unfolded enters
the ecstatic beatitude of the Highest Heaven. This is the Grand
Achievement to be performed by every soul on whatever plane of
existence-smiting the Druja and transmuting the same into Asha
everywhere and at all times. Individual or aggregate renovation consists
only in this-triumph of Asha over Druja, and constant application of
oneself in this great fight as a volunteer of Ashoi or Spenta Mainyu.
(vii) "Khshathrâish ýûjên karapanô kâvayaschâ,
Akâish shyaothanâish ahûm mereñgeidyâi mashîm,
Yêñg khê urvâ khaêchâ khraodat daênâ,
Hyat aibî-gemen ýathrâ chinvatô peretush,
Yavôi vîspâi drûjô demânâi astayô.”
-Ha 46 ; 11.
334 A Life of "Drujih” LEADS TO Re-incarnation ON THIS EARTH.
"The Karaps or the deaf to spiritual knowledge and the kavis or the blind to
religious precepts unite together in order to ruin the human voice of conscience by
means of deeds of evil authority, - who have materialized their own soul and
conscience -these when they arrive at the Chinvat Bridge take up their existence for all
time in the abode of Druja."
The spiritual wrecks or those who have willingly gone astray from
the path of conscience and unfoldment of the soul, who have lived a
life of Drujih and thus suppressed the development of Ahu or Right
conscience, have to be incarnated in this world which is the permanent
abode of Druja. This paragraph teaches us that such souls as are unable
to cross the Chinvat Bridge on account of their Drujih-life after their
death, have to be re-incarnated on this earth which is really a hell or
abode of Drujih.
(viii) “Yezi adaish asha drujem venghaiti,
Hyat ansashuta ya daibitana fraokkta,
Ameretaiti daevaishcha mashyaishcha,
At toi savaish vahmem vakhshat Ahura."
“If one vanquishes Druja by means of Ashoi and right-charity-deeds at the time
when what is termed deception by the devilish-people is known to be the Immortalbliss,
then at that time, O Ahura, thy propitiation will increase along with its
beneficent results."
The same central idea of vanquishing Drujih by means of Ashoi
and deeds of Asar-i-Roshnih is reiterated here. As long long as
Immortal-Bliss is termed illusion by devil-like people Druja will
prevail, but as soon as the Immortality of the soul and its bliss in
Garotman is cognized by a person, he turns over a new leaf in his life
and begins a life of fight with Druja by means of Ashoi Tarikat or
canons of holiness taught by the prophet.
(ix) Atcha ahmai varenai mazda nidatem,
Ashem suidyai tkaeshai rashayenghe drukhsh,
Ta vangheush sare izya manangho,
Antare vispeng dregvato hakhmeng antare-mruye.”
- Ha XLIX ; 3.
"Drujih" RESULTS IN Spiritual Destruction OF ALL 335
“O Mazda then for the sake of this benefit-giving Law Ashoi has been fixed, and
Druj has been fixed as the law of destruction. In order that I may long for the
leadership of Good Mind I denounce all the friends of the wicked ones.”
The two poles Tarikih and Roshnih are rules respectively for two
potentates Drujih and Ashoi. For the sake of the benefit of spiritual
unfoldment Zoroaster has declared Ashoi to be the guiding rule, for
Drujih is meant for annihilating spiritual progress. Hence it is seen from
this that the cardinal teaching of Zoroastrianism for the sake of
Unfoldment of the Soul is the duty of over-powering the Drujih every
moment by means of the observance of the principles of Ashoi. A
similar idea is found in Gatha 51; 9 where it is stated that -
“Rashayenghe dregvantem savayo ashavanem i.e., the wicked is for destruction,
the holy one is for the benefit.” –
And this implies that "Dregvant" or practitioner of "Drujih" brings
spiritual destruction unto himself and others, whereas "Ashavan" or
professor of Ashoi does good to his own soul as well as to the souls of
(x) “At ye ma-na makekhshaite anyatha ahmat Mazda,
Hvo damoish drujo hunush, ta duzdao yoi henti,
Maibyo zbaya ashem vanghuya ashi gat te.”
-Ha 51; 10.
“O Mazda, he who destroys my law in any other way than this, he is the malformation
of the creation of Druj, and such are ill-informed. As for me I aspire after
Ashoi, may it come in good blissful reward from Thee."
Those who go against the Law of Holiness, as taught by
Zarathushtra are regarded as mal-formations and parents of Druja and
are always on the side of the ill-formed Anghra Mainyu. A genuine
follower of Zarathushtra aspires only after Ashoi in order to enable
himself to fight the Druj successfully for the sake of Spiritual
336 Drujih-ful Soul re-incarnated ACCORDING TO GATHAS 46, 49 & 51.
(xi) "At dush-khshathrêñg, dush-shyaothanêñg duz-vacanghô,
Duz-daênêñg dush-mananghô, dregvatô
Akâish hvarethâish paitî urvãnô paityeiñtî
Drûjô demânê haithyâ anghen astayô.”
-Ha 49; 11.
“The souls with abuse of power and evil deeds and of evil-word, with evil
consciences and of wicked evil-mind are visited by bad auras and have their
existences indeed in the abode of Druja.”
The same idea of re-incarnation of souls on this earth which is
regarded as the abode of Druja is found in Gatha 49; 11 as in Gatha 46;
11. The souls not observing cannons of Ashoi during their short sojourn
in this world and following the innumerable lines of Drujih resulting in
evil-thought, evil-word, evil-deed, evil-power, evil-conscience and bad
magnetic aura, are by the natural law of attraction of Thought-vibration,
attracted spontaneously towards the earth which is the abode of Druja
or place of the origin of Druja. A similar idea is found also in Gatha
51; 14.
(xii) "Nôit urvâthâ dâtôibyaschâ karapanô vâstrât arêm,
Gavôi ârôish âsêñdâ hvâish shyaothanâishchâ sêñghâishchâ,
Yê-îsh sêñghô apêmem drûjô demânê âdât.”
- Ha 51; 14.
“The Karapans i.e., those deaf to religious teachings do not propagate by means
of their deeds and precepts, the friendship of worthy gifts and the humble working for
the cow (spirituality) in perfection. The end of these precepts is fixed in the abode of
The phrase "Drujo-deman" or abode of Druja as opposed to
“Garo-nman” or the abode of Song Celestial, occurs in three different
sections of Gatha, 46; 11,-49; 11, and 51; 14. "Druja" or aggregate
visible and invisible magnetic influences, which gravitate the soul
towards infoldment and materialism, is peculiar to this world of
physical dense matter, where the soul descends with its physical
tabernacle. The object of the soul's existence here is to cognize this
Druja, and it is the duty of the
soul to live "in the world," not to be “of the world.” If the soul follows a
trend of life, which is full of Druj-influences, it is kept attracted to this
earth by a spontaneous law of attraction, and hence it has to be re-born
in this world. A follower of the law of Zoroaster has to achieve the
spiritual unfoldment as fast best as he can, and hence in order to avoid
re-incarnation he is always ordered by religious mandates to observe
Ashoi and cancel Drujih, and to transmute the Asar-i-Tarikih every
moment of his life into Asar-i-Roshnih by living a life in strict
accordance with Asboi.
(i) "Aat ýezi-shê barât aêvô ýat iristem upa vâ nasush raêthwât
nånghanat hacha cashmanat hatcha, hizumat hacha paitish
kharenâdh fravâkhshat hacha frashumakat hacha, aêshãm
paiti- sruye aêsha drukhsh ýâ nasush upa-dvãsaiti.”
-Fargard 3; 14.
“If verily a dead body is carried by a single person the Nasu or destructive
magnetism pollutes him through the nose, the eye, the mouth, through the holes of
sexual organs, and in this way the Druj of Nasu rushes over him.”
In this section the function of Druj-i-Nasu is described. This
contamination of Nasu or bad magnetism issuing from any
disintegrating body or substance pollutes the living persons under many
circumstances, and one of these is the occasion of carrying singly a
dead body. The law of units and tens is very minutely considered in the
Zoroastrian religion, and hence however small the dead body may be, it
is strictly enjoined that at least two persons in magnetic connection by
means of a piece of cotton tape or handkerchief should carry a dead
body or touch the same.
The Druj-i-Nasu also harasses those who partake of flesh food.
When life departs from any animal, the atoms and molecules of the
dead body begin to disintegrate, producing very injurious magnetic
force termed "Druj-i-Nasu" in the
338 Seclusion of Menstruous Women ACCORDING TO VENDIDAD.
Avesta. Persons constantly polluted by this Druj cannot be said to lead a
life of Ashoi or purity, and hence it is incumbent on all followers of
Zoroastrianism to avoid the ill effects of this Druj-i-Nasu. The whole of
the fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth Fargards is teeming with the description
of Druj-i-Nasu.
( ii) "Yat ahmi nmâne ýat mâzdayasnôish nâirika dakhshtavaiti anghat, ýat
vâ skeñdô aipi-jatô pishtrô aipi- iritô gâtush. Aêtadha aêtahe âste
stairishcha barezishcha hãm-verenåoñte vîspem â ahmât ýat hãmcha
zasto frine vizbarât.”
-Fargard 5 ; 59.
"When in the house of a Mazdayacnian a woman becomes menstruated, her work
becomes broken and mutilated, and she must occupy a secluded spot. She may put on
and utilize her own clothes and cushions until the time when she is able to clean her
hands for prayer-work."
In this paragraph is given the mandate for the seclusion of
menstruous women. The Druj-i-Buji or bad magnetic force issuing
from the body of menstruous women should be always guarded
against, and the order for “Airimgah" or seclusion of such women is
based on the higher laws of personal magnetism. Her bed and clothes
are to be kept separate and these cannot be used by her or anybody else
under ordinary circumstances. A detailed account of the way of
keeping a menstruous woman apart from others is given in Fargard
XVI which we shall see later on.
(iii) “Ime aete vacha yoi henti anghrahe mainyeush snathem ; ime aete vacha
yoi henti aeshmahe khravim draosh snathem ; ime aete vacha yoi henti
mazainyanam daevanam snathem ; ime aete vacha yoi henti vispanam
daevanam snathem. Ime aete vacha yoi henti avainghao drujo avainghao
nasavo hamaestarem yo hacha irista upa-jvantent upa-dvansait.”
-Fargard 10; 16, 17.
“These words are meant for a weapon against Anghra Mainyu, against Aeahma
of cruel spear, against the creators of Mazayini-Drujih, and against all daevas or
producers of all kinds of Drujih ; these words are also meant as weapons against the
Druj-i-Nasu that rushes from the dead on the living.”
Vendidad ENJOINS Magnetic Purity AGAINST DRUJIH. 339
Here we are taught the law of the efficacy of Avesta Manthra
based on the rules of Staota or vibration colours. Remembering that all
sorts of Drujih are but various forms of evil magnetic influences with
varied intensities, we can easily understand why the charm or Manthric
effect of Avesta recital is looked upon as the best weapon against the
attacks of all kinds of Drujihs. Anghra Mainyu is the arch-fiend, the
leader of all those who create Drujih in any form and who are therefore
termed Daevas. Aesham is the arch-Drujih --the parent of all the
species of Drujih e.g., Hashi, Gashi, Saeni, Buji, Nasu, Paesish etc.
The Manzaini or thought-destroying magnetic influence is produced by
the evil currents emanating from the detached hair and nail, which are
termed Drujih-i-Heher or Hayir. Those who influenced by means of the
use of hair and nail in black magic, the thought energy of other people
in order to harass them were therefore termed Manzayini-Daeva or
devilish people who employed this thought-destroying Drujih obtained
from detached hair and nail. The Nasu is the evil magnetism issuing
from a dead disintegrating animal body, and the Vendidad enjoins
strict order of remaining far from this Druj-i-Nasu, and this order is
quite in keeping with the modern principle of science, of avoiding all
bacteria and microbes or of destroying them. In the Zoroastrian science
of Drujih, it is taught that there are innumerable bacteria and microbes
termed "Hariri" which are unseen and beyond the power of any
microscope. The bacteria, which give rise to any kind of Drujih are
microbes or incubi of magnetism which are produced from ultraphysical
matter. Thus we learn why so much importance is given to
magnetic purity in the Vendidad in special and in all other Avesta
scriptures, for without magnetic purity, the aura (Khoreh) cannot be
maintained in its required high level of efficiency, and in the absence
of efficient and holy halo of the aura, the Kehrpa or invisible subtle
body in the human constitution cannot accelerate the response-capacity
of the soul. Magnetic purity is the main-spring of spiritual unfoldment
and hence we are taught in the Gatha 48; 5 and Vendidad V; 21 that
"the maintenance of purity is the best thing for mankind from the very
birth” –
"Yaozd ao mashyai ai aipi zanthem vahishta.”
(iv) “Sraosho ashyo drujim aperesat, apayukhtat paiti vazat, drukhsh akhathre
averezike, tum zi aeva vispahe angheush astvato anaiwiyasto hunahi.”
-Fargard 18; 30.
“Holy Srosh inquired of Druja with the wielding of the mace 0 thou lustreless
inactive Druj thou indeed art the only one in the entire material world who conceivest
without contact."
This paragraph informs us that Srosh is the opponent of the
aggregate Druj named Aesham. Those who live a life of strict Ashoi or
holiness increase the rate of response of their soul to the higher planes
i.e. they attune themselves with Slosh the greatest of angelic forces.
Those who live a life devoid of holiness-a life of Drujih, - side
themselves with the greatest Druj of Aesham which is the centre of all
species of Drujih. Drujih is always lusterless and destroyer of Khoreh
or aura, and is the personification of spiritual Inertia and infoldment.
This generic Druj of Aesham multiplies itself inordinately and the
Hariri or microbes constituting this Drujih assume various forms of
species of Drujih viz-Nasu, Hashi, Gashi, Saeni, Heher, Paesish, etc.,
etc. The extent of inner scientific rules of nature inculcated in the
Zoroastrian scriptures can be intelligible to those who care to see and
understand it. Various occasions on which the Drujih-i-Aesham
becomes pregnant as it were, are then described in the same Fargard
viz., when one makes water on feet and without the saying of Baj
prescribed for the removal of excreta (§ 40). When one emits semen in
sleep on his own thighs in sleep i.e. in nocturnal discharge when one
avoids the instant bath and recital of certain Avesta words immediately
after waking in such a condition (§ 46); when a young man of the age
of 15 takes to adultery and inordinate sexual intercourse with strange
women ( § 54 ). All these teachings in the Vendidad make clear to us
the meaning of Drujih as taught in the Zoroastrian scriptures and the
importance of strict magnetic purity enjoined on the followers of
Manzaini & Vereni Drujih ANNULLED BY MANTHRA OF HOLINESS 341
III. Yashes
(i) “Vîsãstaca imåo nâmênîsh parshtascha pairi-vârasca vîseñte, pairi
mainyaoyât drujat varenyayâatcha dravãnithyat zîziýûshatcha kayadhât
vîspô-mahrkâatca pairi drvatat ýat anghrât mainyaot ; mãnayen ahe ýatha
hazangrem narãm ôyum narem aiwiakhshayoit.”
-Hormazd Yasht § 19,
"Just as a thousand men can hold against one man in the same way these names
serve as precept, defence, and support against the invisible Druj, the wicked destroyer
belonging to Vareni Drujih, against any wicked person full of plague and belonging to
Anghra Mainyu."
The charming vibration-colour effect of the names of Ahura
Mazda is sufficient to avert the ill-effects of any species of Druja or
evil magnetism trying to attack a holy person from outside. One more
Drujih viz. the Vareni-drujih is spoken of here, and very often in the
Avesta the Vareni and Manzaini drujih accompany each other. Both
are species of evil magnetism employed by practitioners of black
magic. Just as Manzaini is instrumental in killing the healthy thoughtenergy
of the good people, the Vareni is itself an accumulation of very
hideous bad thoughts of magicians, which work like actual spears in
the world of thought-atmosphere. The Drujih itself is always invisible
to the naked eye, and only the persons or things instrumental in
producing any species of Drujih are always palpably visible.
(ii) “Ashava vanat drujim; ashava vanat dravantem.
-Hormazd Yasht § 28.
“The practitioner of Ashoi vanquishes Drujih; the the practitioner of Ashoi
vanquishes the produce of drujih.”
This is the most elementary and at the same time the most
essential rule of practice of Zoroastrianism. For the sake of spiritual
unfoldment Drujih must be annihilated or transmuted into Ashoi, and
this can be achieved only by a person professing
" '
So strict practice of Ashoi as taught in the Zoroastrian religion. Such a
professor of Ashoi and vanquisher of Drujih has the power of producing
the genuine efficacy of Avesta Manthra by means of which he is able to
overpower the magical operations of any practitioner of Drujih who is
termed a “Dravant” or one who runs away or deviates from the path of
(iii) "YA-tu zi Zarathushtra vanat daevo mashyo ko nmanahe bada
Spitama Zarathushtra, vispa drukhsh janaiti, vispa drukhsh
Nashiaiti yatha haonaoiti aesham vacham.”
-Haftan Yasht; Supersection.
“The charm 'Yatu zi Zarathushtra' vanquishes devilish people. O Spitama
Zarathushtra who is he verily who when he chants these words smites all Druj and
annihilates all Druj from the abode ?”
In the fight between Ashoi and Drujih taught in the Zoroastrian
scriptures, a dual function is to be borne in mind. There are two aspects
of the fight-the offensive and the defensive. A person has to practice
Ashoi and thus vanquish all species of Drujih or transmute any sort of
Drujih into "Asar-i-Roshnih, and besides this offensive operation, he
has to constantly defend himself by the practice of Avesta Manthric
charms against the attacks of any Druj coming from the surrounding
atmosphere. Drujih in toto can be best overpowered and destroyed by a
holy person who is proficient in the practice of Avesta incantation, and
this is taught in the most powerful word-charm above-quoted.
(iv) “Garo-nmanem nereyo asti ashavaoyo ; naechish dravatam ayene
paitish garo-nmanem, ravohu ashayaonem chithrem Ahurem Mazdam."
-Ardibehsht Yasht § 4.
“The highest heaven Garo-nman is the goal for holy men; none of the Dravants
or practitioners of Druj can proceed towards Garo-nman in the joys – the abode of
holiness, the source i.e. Ahura Mazda.”
A ZOROASTRIAN MUSTN'T BE Dravant i.e. Practitioner of Drujih. 343
The ultimate goal of all souls after their unfoldment is the
permanent peace in the Garo-nmana i.e. the House of Eternal Staota or
Music Celestial, where Ahura Mazda Himself dwells as the Source of
all Joy. This ecstasy can be attained only by the holy ones, for spiritual
unfoldment is possible only with the professors of strict Ashoi, and no
practitioner of Drujih can go to this ultimate goal in the absence of
unfoldment restrained on account of the gross vibrations of Drujih. This
paragraph tells us in a nutshell why Ashoi is essential and why a
follower of Zoroastrianism should not put himself in the class of
Dravant or practitioner of slightest Druj.
(v) “Apa-nasyat drukhsh, nasyat drukhsh, dvarat drukhsh, vinasyat,
apakhedhre apa-nasyehe, ma marenchainish gaethao astavaitish ashahe.”
-Ardibehsht Yahst § 17.
“May Druj be vanquished! may Druj perish! may Druj run away! may Druj be
annihilated ! Perish thou far towards the northern direction ! so that all the physical
departments of Ashoi may not undergo destruction."
This is the imprecation cast by a practitioner of Ashoi on Druj, so
that by the vibration effect of these words he keeps himself guarded
against all attacks of Drujih-atmosphere. It is similar in sense to the
charm contained in the "Kem na Mazda" prayer recited by a Zoroastrian
every time of his untying the sacred girdle. This charm is as under: -
“Pata-no tbishyantat pairi, mazdaoscha armaitishcha spentascha ! nase daevi
drukhsh ! nase daevo-chithre ! nase daevo-frakarshte ! nese daevo-fradaite ! apadrukhsh
nase ! apa-drukhsh dvara ! apa-drukhsh vinase ! apakhedhre apa-nasyehe !
ma meerenchainish gaethao astavaitish ashahe.”
"O Mazda and Spenta Armaiti, give us complete protection against affliction!
Perish thou O devil Druj! Perish thou the seed of devil! Perish thou sown of the devil!
Perish thou of devil-formation! Be annihilated O Druj! Run away O Druj! Be null and
void O Druj! Perish thou in the northerly quarter so that the physical departments of
Ashoi may not undergo destruction!”
We learn from such paragraphs of very deep underlying import
how much importance is attached in the Zoroastrian scriptures to the
total destruction of Druj or unseen evil magnetic influence, which
hinders the progress or unfoldment of the soul. Ashoi is the only path
for unfoldment, and a Zoroastrian must lead all his energy under the
banner of Ashoi against any species of Drujih, defying the Druj as in
the extant very few Avestic scriptures.
(vi) “Yo aesham daevanam hazanghrai hazanghrao paitish, baevarai
baevano, ahankhshtai ahankhshtyo paitish, nameni ameshanam
spentanam haurvatato zbayoit, nasum janat, haehi janat, ghashi janat,
saene janat, buji janat."
-Khordad Yasht § 2.
"He who invokes the name of Khordad out of Ameshaspends in order to withstand
the thousandfold, ten thousandfold and immeasurable opposition of these daevas,
smites the Druj of Nasu, Hashi, Ghashi, Saene and Buji.”
This paragraph clearly points out the vibration-efficacy of Avesta
Manthra, and that too of the repetition of the name of one Ameshaspend
viz., of Khordad. Such a repetition results in the destruction of
all evil influences coming from various species of Drujih enumerated
above, viz-Dead Matter (Nasu), Ignominious illicit intercourse and
sodomy etc., (Hashi, Ghashi), Destructive Thought-Energy (Saene) and
Seminal and Menstrual discharges (Buji). A Zoroastrian must not
produce any kind of Drujih himself and has to protect his own aura
from the attacks of such Drujih produced by other base persons
wallowing in the mire of abject depravity.
(vii) Kamchit thwamcha drujemcha haithyo-ayanam hentum ; kamchit va
aipyaenam hentum ; kamchit va rachtwanam ; kamchit thwamcha
drujemcha airyabyo padaeyibho janani, thwamcha drujemcha bandani,
thwamcha drujemcha nighne, thwamcha drujemcha nizhbarem
-Khordad Yasht § 5.
Conquest over All Drujih - BADGE OF A ZOROASTRIAN. 345
"I smite thee out of the Arya Places – any species of Druj of the essence of open
proceeding, of the essence concealed proceeding, any species of polluting Druj. I bind
thee Druj and I expel and annihilate thee Druj."
There can be no stronger words against the ill effects of Druja than
those in the Khordad Yasht quoted above. This is as it were a stock
formula, which must be repeated by every Zoroastrian in order to
remember the goal of his birth on this earth, viz., the spiritual
unfoldment by means of constant successful fight with any species of
Druj whatever. The words in the above formula are forcible enough
producing their best vibration-effect against any evil magnetic influence
issuing from any practitioner of Drujih.
“Conquest over Drujih” should be a qualification of every
Zoroastrian and especially of the priest. Hence in § 9 of the same Yasht
it is said that the one qualified to learn the mysteries of Avesta Manthra
must be "of good conscience, holy, overpowering, and the
vanquisher of all Drujih in toto." “Yo hu-daeno, ashava, aurvo,
vispo-drujem ramayehe." Unless a Zoroastrian has become "vispodrujem
ramayehe” he cannot be termed drujih-proof, and therefore he
cannot be said to have fulfilled the goal of spiritual unfoldment
required of him from his very existence. Khordad Yasht § 9 thus
teaches us that we have to be "Ashava" or "practical Professors of
Ashoi," and at the same time “Vispo-drujem ramaya” i.e.
“subjugators of entire species of Drujih”
(viii) "Sraosho ashyo drigum thratotemo; ho verethraja drujem jaghnishto ; na
ashava afrivachastemo ; ho verethra verethravastemo; manthro spento
mainyavim drujem nizhbairishto.”
-Srosh Yasht Hadokht §, 3.
"Holy Srosh is the greatest nourisher of a poor person ; he is the most victorious
smiter of Druj; the holy man is the best blessing-giver ; he is the most successful in
success; Manthra Spenta is the best expeller of unseen Druja.”
346 . Ashoi & Srosh VERSUS Drujih & Aeshma.
The section teaches the cardinal doctrine of Zoroastrianism viz.,
that Srosh the angel, and the charm of Manthra Spenta can vanquish
Druja successfully. Ashoi or holiness leads to the attunement of the
holy person with Srosha, and the holy person with the power of Srosha
attuned and with the power of aura charged with the best Manthric
vibrations within itself, is therefore successful in causing total
annihilation of Druj. Ashoi and Drujih are the two opposite poles, as
are Srosha and Aeshma. Ashoi raises a man to the high level of
Srosha, and Drujih tumbles him down into the bottomless abyss of
Aeshma. Srosh is the culminating point of Spiritual Unfoldment by
means of the practice of Ashoi; Aeshma is the narrowest point or
Infoldment of the Soul on account of the recurring folds of all species
of Drujih. Here again the Law of Polarity (Juz) is very clearly defined
in the two opposites-Srosha and Aeshma-Ashoi and Drujih.
(ix) “Yo vanano kayadahe, yo vanano kaidyehe yo janta daevayao drujo, ashaojangho
ahum-merencho……………………..Yo vispaish ayancha
khshafnascha yuidyeiti manzuyaeibyo hada dae-vieybio.”
-Srosh Yasht Hadokht § § 10,12,
“Who is the smiter of the sinner, who is the smiter of those belonging to
sinners, who smites the intenfiely-powerful Ahu-destroying devil Druj
……………..who continues fighting all day and all night long with the wicked ones
who practice Manzaini-Drujih.”
“Yo akhshtishcha urvaitishcha drujo spasyo."
-Srosh Yasht Hadokht § 14.
"Who watches against the Drujone in peace and friendship with him,"
"Yim dathat Ahuro Mazdao ashava aeshmahe khravi-draosh hama-estarem."
-Srosh Yasht Hadokht § 15.
“Whom holy Hormazd created as the opponent of Aeshma of cruel spear."
These three sections again repeat the same cardinal doctrine
explained above; and hence it is the duty of a Zoroastrian to avoid all
species of Drujih, if he at all has in mind the ultimate
Attunement with Sraosha – YEARNING OF MAZDAYACNIANS. 347
goal of spiritual unfoldment through attunement with Srosha by means
of strict piety and Ashoi Tarikat as preached in the Zoroastrian
scriptures. It is on account of the need of Spiritual Unfoldment through
attunement with Srosh that in Srosh Yasht the Major § 13 it is expressly
enjoined on all "Mazdayacnians to yearn for attunement with Holy
Srosha" ("Paitishata mazdayacna sraoshahe ashyehe yacnem").
Even the extant meagre fraction of Avesta Scriptures is too much for
those who really care to understand the inner signification thereof.
(x) "Imem thwam tuirim yanem haoma jaidyemi duraosha, yatha
aesho amavao thrafedo, frakhshtane zema paiti tbaesho-taurvao
Hom Yasht the Major § 20.
“I beseech from thee O death-removing Haoma this fourth boon viz., that I may
move about on the earth, lord of my will, courageous, satisfied, removing all worries,
as a vanquisher of druja."
Here again Haoma who leads the soul on to the spiritual path of
unfoldment is besought to grant the boon of vanquishing Druja. For we
have already learnt from the same Hom Yasht that "the manna of
Haoma leads with joy to Ashoi," ("Aat ho yo hoamahe madho asha
hachaite urvasmana.) Hence we learn that all the Tarikats of Ashoi
lead to the annihilation of Druja, and hence Ashoi is the only line of
living a purely Zoroastrian life for the sake of “Urvatam Urunem” i.e.
the Unfoldment of the Soul.
(xi) “Merenchaite vispam dainghon mairyo mithro-drukhsh.”
-Meher Yasht § 2.
“The damned practitioner of “Mithra-drujih” destroys the entire region.”
Razialttem pantAm dadA.iti atarsh mazd_o ahurahe yoi mil hrem 'noit aiwidruzintij
.AsM'l.tnam vanglmhish 8urao spentao Iravashayo dadMti asnAm
Irazaintim lIoi mithrem no;' aiwi druzinti,"
-Meher Yasht § 3.
“The Fire of Ahura Mazda gives the most righteous path to those who do not
commit the Mithra-drujih; the good, brave, beneficient Ashaunam Fravashis give issue
of innate-wisdom to those who do not commit the Mithra-drujih."
“Ahmai naemai uz-jasaiti mithro granto upa-tbisho, yahmai naenanam
mithro-drukhsh; naeda mainyu paiti-paite.”
- Meher Yasht § 19.
"Wherever their exists the practitioner of Mithra-drujih there comes up the angel
Meher vexed and grieved, and does not give unseen protection.”
“Tum ana mithro-drujam mashyanam avi khaepaithiaose tanvo thwyam avabarahi,
apa aesham bazavo aojo tum granto khshayamno barahi ; apa padayao
zavare, apa chashmanao sukem, apa gaoshayao sraom.
-Meher Yasht § 23.
“Also thou bringest terror on to the bodies of the men themselves who commit the
Mithradrujih, thou takest away, vexed and ruling, the strength of both their sides, the
power of both their feet, the lustre of both their eyes, the audible power of both their
“Pam kameredao spayeiti mithro-drujam mashyanam ; para kame redao
vazaite mithro-drujam mashyanam,"
-Meher Yasht § 37.
"Meher separates the heads of men committing mithra-drujih ; he removes the
heads of men who commit mithra-drujih.”
"Yoi paurva mithrem druzinti, avaeshamcha patho paonto yim isenti
mithro-drujo haithim ashava-janascha dravanto."
-Meher Yasht § 45.
"And (the friends of Meher) are the protectors of the paths desired by the actual
committer of mithra-drujih, out of those wicked smiters-of-pious-persons who have
first committed mithra-drujih.”
"Yahmi soire mithro-drujo aipi vithishi jata paurva mashyakaongho.”
-Meher Yasht § 80.
“In whose jurisdiction are there witnessed many men in abject condition who
have committed mithra-drujih even privately.”
“Kada-no fraourvaesayaiti ashahe paiti pantam, drujo vaesmend
-Meher Yasht § 85.
“When will he take us back on to the path of Ashoi, out of the deviated routine of
Drujih” ?
EMPHASIS ON Truthfulness IN Iranian Primary Education. 349
These are a few of the references from the longest Meher Yasht to
Mithra-drujih. We have learnt the meaning of the term "Druja" -the
opposite of “Asha” -and Druja implies the most obnoxious evil
magnetic influence produced by any the slightest breach of the laws of
Asha. “Druja” literally means deviation or running away (" Dru" = to
run away). Like all other various species of Drujih “Mithra-drujih” also
hinders the path of spiritual unfoldment. Truth-speaking is the first step
in the edifice of the Ashoi-Mandate of Zoroastrianism. Sincerity, and
respect to one's own developed conscience and right-speakingparallelism
of the thought, the tongue and the heart - the most essential
rule of Ashoi. Falsehood and breach of promise result in Drujih termed
Mithra-drujih, which like all other Drujih preys upon the aura of the
person committing Mithra-drujih. Truth-speaking leads to the
development of certain desirable Spirit-centres termed "Chakhra" in
the Avesta, which ultimately lead to the unfoldment of "Daena" or
conscience and “Ahu” or knowledge of What is in Nature or Right
Intuition. Mithra-drujih resulting from falsehood and breach of promise
and insincerity, checks the development of such “chakhra." and as a
result the soul is drawn more and more towards Infoldment on account
of the effect of “Drujih”. In the references given above there are to be
found advantages to those who do not commit Mithra-drujih, and the
disadvantages to those who commit it. “Kharenangha" or aura,
"Ushtana” or vital life-energy, “Mithra" or thought-energy, and
"Manthra," or word-energy are an inter-related and mutually affect one
another on account of the subtle working of “Staota" or vibrationcolour
in each of these. Hence in order to preserve the main pivot of
Spiritual Unfoldment-the fulcrum of "Kharenangha" or aura-- a
Zoroastrian has to learn from his very childhood total abstinence
from Mithra-drujih, and has to be truthful in all dealings at any
risk. Horsemanship, archery and truthfulness were the three
elementary points of the primary education of an Iranian Zoroastrian,
and Truthfulness saves the man from falling into any other kind of
Drujih. Thus we are able to get some idea of the term "Druja" as
explained in the Zoroastrian scriptures.
350 Drujih-i-Buji AND SINS OF Sexual Causes.
We shall now take up the subject of menstruation, which falls
within this chapter. The Drujih-i-Buji mentioned in the Khordad Yasht
results if proper precaution is not taken at the period of menstrual
discharge of a woman. Hence all sins of sexual intercourse e. g. "Jehmarzih,"
or sin of adultery with a prostitute, "Dashtan-marzih" or sin of
intercourse with a menstruous woman, "Kun-marzih" or sodomy,
"Avarun-marzashnih" or improper sexual excesses, "Shoithra-gunah" or
masturbation or onanism, " Rospi" and "Rospi-bargih" or all kinds of
illicit intercourse with other women, “Gavah-paiti” and "Gavak-vanidi"
or all kinds of sodomy-all these enumerated in the Pazend Patit or
Expiatory prayer of Dasturan Dastur Adarbad Mahrespand fall under
A right knowledge of Drujih.i-Buji and of the ill effects thereof
will save the boys of the age of puberty from the fangs of masturbation,
will prevent the young ladies from impairing their private organs during
the period of menses, and will stop infant mortality and miscarriage etc.
by teaching restraint of sexual excesses to the married couple. Cohabiting
after some time of the conception of a child is according to
Vendidad XV; 8 regarded as an act of Drujih-i-Buji. Thus a genuine
knowledge of all the rules of Ashoi taught in the Zoroastrian religion
puts a stop to many social evils arising out of loose morality, which can
be controlled only by imparting original knowledge of Ashoi and Drujih.
The mandate for seclusion of menstruated women is based on the
Zoroastrian precaution against Drujih-i-Buji. The word "Dakhshtavaiti"
in the Avesta literally means having some mark or indication, and hence
the word came to mean "menstruous." When a young girl comes to the
age of puberty, this monthly discharge is natural as the seminal
discharges in males. During this period the physical body of the woman
has extraordinary sham heat, and the evil magnetism flowing from her at
this time is sufficient to annul the power of magnetic aura of a pious
man within a certain distance of her. The magnetic flow from a
RULES FOR THE Seclusion of menstruous Women. 351
menstruous woman deadens the essential-energy of seeds placed before
her, and renders them sterile. This fact is expressly stated by Pliny
thus, -
“On the approach of a woman in this state of menstruation,
seeds which are touched by her become sterile, grafts wither
away; garden plants are withered up.”
In the same way the germs spread in the surrounding atmosphere by
the extraordinary evil magnetic condition of a menstruous woman
when taken into the breath of healthy persons, cause the weakness of
mind by a dispersion of their thought-power and various diseases also.
Such a woman cannot repeat the Avesta manthra and is not allowed
even to hear anybody else reciting the manthra, for the magnetic
current issuing from her body is sufficient to nullify the Staotic effect
of Avesta vibrations.
She has to cleanse her hands and feet and face only with the bull's
urine (Av. Gaomaeza), and during the period of menstruous seclusion
she cannot touch water for external application. The magnetic current
in the bull's urine is powerful in overpowering the microbes in the aura
of the menstruous Woman, and the Khshaeto-frado in the water
multiplies these microbes if water is applied for wash to her physical
body. She has to take her food in a lead or iron utensil, and all these
simple rules are based on the subtle laws of magnetism.
The menstrual discharge is a necessary condition and a natural
one, for the function of bearing children, which the woman is entrusted
with, necessitates this periodic flow. This is a spontaneous “Asar-i-
Tarikih” arising naturally, as in the case of taking food and removing
excreta from the body. But as Zoroastrians we have to transmute this
Asar-i-Tarikih into Asar-i-Roshnih by observing certain rules of
seclusion, prescribed in the Vendiaad, of women in menses: -
“Yezi nairika vohunish aiwi-raenat yat he thrayo khshafna sachaonte
airime-gatum, he nishhidaeta vispem a ahmat he chathvaro khshafna
-Vendidad XVI.; 8.
"If when three nights have passed, the woman sees menstrual flow, she must
occupy a secluded spot till four nights have passed."
It is only for a scientist well-versed in all the subtle laws of
magnetism working in nature to account for this simple rule of
seclusion preached in the Vendidad. It should be remembered always
that Zoroastrianism is but another name of "Universal Science" or
"Universal Knowledge of the Laws of Nature." In Persia when all the
Tarikats of Ashoi were being observed, there were special separate
quarters built called “Dashtan-Gah” or “Quarters for menstruous
women,” and there was no chance of infection or of contagion of the
evil microbe-ful magnetism of menstruous women. Meals were
supplied to these women according to a certain system, and the roles of
keeping at a certain specified distance from such women were strictly
observed. These rules are termed rules of "Gaim" in the Avesta or
"Gam" or "Kadam" in Pahlavi. The Vendidad prescribes as under –
“Datare gaethanam astavaitinam ashaum, yat ahmi nmane yat mazdayacno
nairika chithravaiti dakhshtavaiti vohunavaiti nishhidat, kutha te verezyan yoi
mazdayacna. Aat mraot Ahuro Mazdao aetadha ahe aete mazdayacna panta
vichinaeta pairi urvarabyascha varedabyaschu aesmayeibyo hishku pansnu gatu
nidayaeta fratara hacha nmana verezyan.
Datare gaethanam astavaitinam ashaum, chvat drajo hacha athrat, chvat
drajo hacha apat, chvat drajo hacha baresmana frastairyat, chvat drajo hacha
nerebyo ashavabyo.
Aat mraot ahuro mazdao, pancha-dasa gaim hacha athrat, panchadasa
gaim hacha apat, pancha-dasa gaim hacha baresmana frastairyat, thri-gaim
hacha nerebyo ashavabyo.
Fargard XVI.; 1, 2, 3, 4.
"O Holy creator of the physical world how should the mazdayacnians act when a
woman in a mazdayacnian house shows signs of menses and menstrual flow?
Hormazd replied thereto that the mazdayacnians should take up a roadside far from
big trees and small plants and wood for feul, and should spread dry sand thereon. O
Creator Holy of the physical world! how far from fire, water, spread baresman and
holy persons? Hormazd replied that the place should be 15 steps from fire, water and
spread baresman and 3 steps from holy persons."
Here we notice clearly that a secluded spot far from in-habited
places is to be selected and dry sand is to be scattered all round, and the
place should be at a specified distance from fire, water etc. If the
menstruated woman is kept according to this prescribed rule, the
Drujih-i-Buji is kept in abeyance to the desirable extent, for the
agencies in nature and especially the magnetic power of Armaiti or
mother-earth begin to work upon any Drujih arising at the time. When
the menstruated woman is kept in touch with dry solid earth, the evil
magnetism from her body is overpowered by the magnetic force of the
earth, and thus the microbes instead of spreading in the surrounding
atmosphere are drawn into the earth and are transmuted into the four
currents necessary for the earth in agriculture viz. - Payangha or
growth, Vastro-dataena or increase, Hayaya or form, and Fraurvishtra
or kernel-bearing- enumerated in the Avesta Visparad. Hence it is that
by all the necessary precautions prescribed under the rules of Ashoi,
taken during the menstrual period, help the agencies of nature to
spontaneously transform the Asar-i-Tarikih into Asar-i-Roshnih. If the
menstruated woman moves about on anyone of the floors of a storeyed
building, the microbes from the evil magnetic current issuing out of her
body cannot easily be over-powered by the earth's magnetism and are
therefore left flying in the surrounding atmosphere thus injuring all
persons breathing the air within the compass including the woman in
menses herself. When these microbes resulting from Drujih-i-Buji are
merged into the Ushtana or life energy of any person, his mental
atmosphere is infected and evil thoughts of lust, anger, passion etc.
begin to grow spontaneously within himself. Moreover all diseases of
heat, such as plague, typhoid, malaria even consumption etc., which
make their appearance in civilized places also break out when the air
becomes full of these microbes from Drujih-i-Buji sufficient to hatch
themselves into various disease-germs. Hence we learn that the
Zoroastrian mandate for seclusion of a menstruous woman on dry solid
earth far removed from inhabited locality, and that for the use of bull’s
urine at the time as the most efficacious magnetic disinfectant are based
on the laws of magnetism preached in the Vendidad.
354 A MENSTRUOUS WOMAN RENDERS the house unfit for rituals.
Another main principle learnt from the above mandate of the
Vendidad of keeping the "Aesma" and "Baresman" at a specified
distance from the menstruous woman is the one relating to the rituals.
No rituals can have their efficacy based on the subtle laws of "Khastra",
"Staota," "Mithra" etc, where a menstruous woman is moving about
without observing the rules of seclusion. For this reason that branch of
rituals which ought to be performed in the "Aipi" or the thought-circle
of relations and friends, in the abode of the departed ones viz , the rituals
of Afringan, Baj, Fravashi, etc., has to be put a stop to, because a
menstruous woman moving about in a house renders the magnetism of
the atmosphere quite impure and unfit for higher ritualistic purposes.
Thus where the strict rules of Ashoi-such as of seclusion of menstruous
woman-are not observed, rituals are necessarily dispensed with, and the
simple (!) religion void of magnetic purity remains for the so-called
handful of reformers (!). But to those who believe Zoroastrian rituals to
be the life-spring of their religion, the forgetfulness of performance of
rituals and of the observance of Ashoi-principles in all respects becomes
as it were a shocking non-Zoroastrian idea.
That the injunction of seclusion of menstruous women in the
Zoroastrian scriptures is founded on the rules of avoiding the clutches of
Drujih-i-Buji informs us of the lines of progress indicated in the march
for spiritual unfoldment. It is from “Hvarshta” or practice of Ashoiprinciples
and from "Hukhta" or practice of truthfulness, that one can
arrive at "Humata" or the original good Thought or Intuition of what
really is in nature-the natural influx of right-minded thought. Annihilation
of Druj from within and without ourselves, and institution of
Ashoi within and around ourselves will enable us ultimately to be-
"Shato-manao," “Vahishto-urvano,” "Khathra vaitish-tanvo," -
with "beatific minds, with best unfolded souls and with halofulbodies."
In order to see clearly the depth of the knowledge of the laws of
magnetism propounded in the Zoroastrian religion, we shall try to
understand what one "Gaim" or step or "Kadam" implies. It is not an
ordinary pace or stride taken in walking.
MATHEMATICAL CALCULATION OF One “Gaim” or “Kadam” i.e. Pace 355
This “Gaim” or step is a technical scientific term, and is to be
calculated in a certain way, and is to be reckoned in relation with the
height of the individual and the intensity of the Sun's rays in a
particular degree of latitude. The “Gaim” or step for different persons
of different heights in the same place is different, and for the same
person in different places also it is different. The following is the role
for finding the average "Gaim” for a person for the year in a certain
place: -
On the 21st of March when the Sun has entered the sign of Aries
(Burz-i-hamal) let the person stand out in an open place about 40 minutes
before 12 noon. The length of the shadow cast by his body is one “Gaim”
average for that person and in that place. Hence near the equator one
“Gaim” for the same person will be the shortest, and as he recedes further
away from the equator the “steps” will be longer and longer.
This law of measuring one “Gaim” or “step” for every individual
is based on the working of the Sun's rays both visible and invisible, and
the function of the air in every activity going on on the earth. Whereas
at the equator the intensity of the Sun's rays is greater, the "Gaim"
measured becomes shorter, and as the intensity nearer the temperate
zones becomes smaller the "Step" is naturally greater. Hence the rule to
be remembered is this-the "length of one “Gaim" or Kadam or Step
mentioned in the Vendidad varies inversely with the intensity of the
Sun's rays i.e. the product of the length of one Gaim and the intensity of
the Sun's rays is always a constant. According to the "Aspandi" or
intensity-power of every species of Drujih and the circuit of the
divergence of its influence, different numbers of such “Gaim” or
"Steps” are given in the Vendidad and other lost Nasks for observing
the distance of aloofness from the source of Drujih. Thus we notice that
Avesta is full of technical terms, and the word "Gaim" rendered
philologically as a "Step", is quite incomplete in sense, unless the term
"Gaim" is technically defined as above. It appears therefore that the socalled
Later Avesta were not composed by some ignorant priests, but
that they are derived from the 21 Nasks of the prophet himself and
cover the best science of the unseen laws of nature.
356 Bodily Purity INDISPENSABLE TO Purity of Mind & Soul.
Having attempted to get some superficial idea of “Druja” and its
species, and of the basic laws of the preservation of the aura by total
refraining from producing any "Drujih," we shall now try to give some
references from the book of Zoroastrian Theology about the same
subject. The writer believes that bodily purity is the first requisite for
spiritual progress. Under the heading "Bodily purity contributes to
righteousness" he says on pp., 92, 93. -
“Next to life the second best good for man is purity. This is the dictum of the
Gathas, and it is most consistently developed throughout the entire subsequent
literature. It is the favourite theme on which the Zoroastrian Theologians are never
tired of expatiating. Purity of body in the most salient feature in the life of a
Zoroastrian. It is rated higher than anything else. The problem of cleanness and
uncleanness, purity and impurity, has evoked an extensive literature. The tenets of the
faith in this respect have been worked out into a science of health. Bodily purity is
indispensable to purity of mind. Cleanliness of body is an essential requisite for
saintliness. The clean in body find it easy to be pure in mind, and the pure in heart
have just a step to take to be holy in spirit.”
The same idea is collaborated by the writer on p. 165. -
"Purity of body, mind and spirit go together to constitute a righteous man. The
Gathas pre-eminently speak of the ethical virtues and purity of soul. Asha presides
over Righteousness, and Druj acts as the evil genius of Wickedness. The greater
portion of the Vendidad, however, contains priestly legislation for purity of body, as
well as of the soul, and gives elaborate rules for the cleansing of those defiled by dead
Further in a very long paragraph mainly based on gleanings from
the Pahlavi book of the Dinkard the writer speaks volumes on behalf of
bodily purity on pp. 212-214 -
“Zarathustra legislates for the material as well as the Spiritual side of our nature.
A healthy body alone can nurture a healthy mind, and it is through the agency of these
two prime factors that the spirit can work out her destiny. Man can act righteousness
and assail wickedness only with a sound body………..The body is an indispensable
vehicle of the Soul and the Saintly Soul drives it on the path of
Righteousness…………The wicked conducts his Soul after bodily desires, but the
righteous man should regulate his body in conformity with the higher desires of the
Soul………Man may
work with the body, yet he may live for the Soul. Discipline rather than austerity is
the Zoroastrian watchword…………….Purity of body contributes to purity of spirit.
Bodily uncleanliness means spiritual pollution, and wantonly weakening the body is a
Anyone who happens to read so much in the book of Zoroastrian
Theology about bodily purity is prone to believe that the writer of the
book cannot ridicule the Zoroastrian mandate of isolation of
menstruous women. The writer of Zoroastrian Theology, we are sure,
will not regard a woman in menses to be clean in her physical
condition. If he regards a woman in menses as physically pure then we
have nothing to say about the writer's derision of the rule of isolation.
We have already seen that in the Vendidad various kinds of Drujihs are
pointed out, and the various hygienic and magnetic precautions under
such conditions of Drujih are also prescribed. Taking the brief of some
so-called handful of reformers, the writer on p. 349 under the heading
"The reformers inveigh against holding women impure during her
menses" says -
"A woman during this period is supposed to be possessed of demons. She is made to
retire to a secluded part of the house, staying away from every object that might be
polluted by her touch, lest she should defile them by contact. Her food is served to her
from a distance so that she may not touch the utensils. Even her look defiles a
consecrated object, just as her touch pollutes it. Her glance that might chance to fall
upon one engaged in prayers nullifies his devotional utterances. Her approach to a
holy place of worship desecrates it. The Avestan and Pahlavi works are full of
rigorous prescriptions on this subject.
“The new school assailed this practice as an outcome of rank superstition. They
declared that the periodical flow of blood during the menses was a normal monthly
sickness of woman. It was no more than a periodical disease. At the most woman
needed rest -during this period, and the elders with the hygienic principles in mind, it
was pointed out, had framed such rigorous rules, and put them under a religious guise,
in order to ensure implicit obedience from an ignorant people who neither understood
the rules for the preservation of bodily health, nor cared for them. Modern Society
they said, with its profounder knowledge of hygiene, no longer needed such archaic
injunctions. It was debasing woman to taboo her as unclean and impure at such a time.
It was ruthless to prevent her, according to the custom that obtained, from having
even a last look at anyone who happened
to die in her house during her menses. It was bad theology, they vehemently argued,
which deprived an unfortunate woman even of the opportunity of resting her loving
eyes on the remains of her dead husband or child on the ground of a superstitious plea
that a look would exercise an unwholesome influence on the soul of the dead, and
seriously disturb it during the time of severing its final connection with the body.”
We do not understand what the writer of Zoroastrian Theology
intends to teach his reader from this sort of style of writing about a very
important subject. Being one of the so-called reformers (and this he
does not openly aver) he puts his own ideas in the mouth of reformers,
and himself seems to remain as it were aloof from entertaining such
views. Although he admits that the Avesta and Pahlavi works are full of
rigorous prescriptions on the subject of precautions necessary to be
observed in the case of a menstruated woman, he inserts the rotten
views of some so-called reformers which are not at all based on any
branch of knowledge except on the cynical attitude of the mind. We
shall try to point out from Avesta and Pahlavi the looseness of the
words of the writer quoted above.
(i) As for "retirement of a woman in the menses to a secluded
part" we have already seen in Vendidad XVI; 1, 2, 3, 4 that
in strict conformity with the preservation of Khoreh or
magnetic halo of the followers of Zoroastrianism, it is
enjoined in the Nask-i-Javit-Shida-dad that a dry place full of
sand should be selected which is removed at a certain
distance from the sacred objects of fire, water, trees etc., and
from the inhabitation of people. The benefit of this mandate
of seclusion will be properly understood by the educated who
have studied even the elements of magnetism.
(ii) Regarding "her food served to her from a distance” we have
the following injunction from the Vendidad.
" Aat mraot ahuro mazdao thri gaim avahishtat aesha yo nairikayao
chithravaityao dakhshtavaityao vohunavaityao kharethrem frabarat ; chinem
kharethrem frabarat chinem yaom frabarat ; ayanghahenem va srum va nitem
khshathra vairya.”
Vendidad & Dinkard re THE EVIL LOOK OF A MENSTRUOUS WOMAN. 359
Then Hormazd replied, “the person who carries meals for a menstruated woman
should stand at a distance of three “kadam” from her. Whatever food or grain is
carried to her should be taken in the basest metal such as iron or lead.”
- Vendidad XVI; 6.
This is a well-known fact that giving a thing to a person or taking a
thing from a person establishes magnetic connection between the two, and
there is actual magnetic transmission from one person to another. For a
menstruated woman an old woman carries her food to the "Dashtangah" or
Menstruation-quarters from the entrance, and putting it in a certain spot,
goes out from the exit, and when she has gone away the woman in the
menses goes to the spot and takes hold of the food-utensil placed there.
All this seems to be ridiculous and having a false 'religious guise' to the
educated ( ! ) men like the writer of Zoroastrian Theology. He ought to
have laughed at his own ignorance of the most elementary principles of
magnetic science.
(iii.) The writer does not seem to understand how "the look of a
menstruated woman defiles a consecrated object just as her
touch pollutes it." The mandate of the Vendidad ordering the
menstruated woman to remain far from fire, baresman etc., is
the best direct evidence to prove that magnetic current
flowing from the eyes of a woman in her menses is sufficient
to magnetically pollute any object on which the current is
cast from her eyes. We have a very fine passage from the
Pahlavi Dinkatd as under -
“Homanat anshuta va kalba nasai gerantar rimanih-i-dashtan
nishman paidak freh min si-gam; pavan vinashn zanashnih dashtan
nishman val padyavi chem zinik chararik dobarestan-i-nasush madam
dashtan nishman, pavan nasushhomand vinashn-i-zak nishman bara
ayaftan-i-val padyavi; zesh didar akarih-i-padyavi avash chigun
levatman dam padirak a vat-i-khar mad-i-gand sakhttar val vinak bara
ayaftan I min padirak va kun vat-i-shekaftarach gand.”
360 ISOLATION OF MENSTRUOUS WOMAN & THE Vibration Law of Staota.
" Know that it is evident that the pollution of the Nasu of a dead
man or a dog is greater in intensity than the pollution of a men struous
woman from the increase of 30 "Kadam." The sight of a menstruous
woman falling upon consecrated objects impairs them and the reason is
this that the Druj-i-Nasu rushes forcibly upon a menstruous woman,
and so the look of the woman full of Druj-i-Nasu mixes with the
consecrated object. Just as the most obnoxious stench of the atmosphere
of “kun-marzih" or sodomy infects any person or thing coming into
contact with it, in the same way consecrated holy things are rendered
useless by the mere look of a menstruous woman falling upon them."
This passage explains how ether or very rare atmosphere works in
the transmission of magnetic currents from one person or thing to
another. The higher vibrations received by a consecrated object in the
ritual or process of consecration are nullified by the one stroke of
coarse and polluted magnetic current falling from the eyes of a
menstruous woman on account of the catabolism of the atoms of her
body during this period owing to intense false heat issuing therefrom.
In the same way a person offering Avesta prayers loses the efficacy
thereof if a menstruous woman happens to cast a glance at him. We
have learnt very well that the efficacy of Avesta recital consists in the
production of Staota or vibration-colours, which are collected in the
Khoreh or aura of the person reciting the Avesta Manthra. If during the
process of recital the look of a menstruous woman happens to fall on
the person, all the Staota are rapidly nullified or cut off just as the light
of a lamp is instantly extinguished on a person's blowing out the light.
Hence the Staota are not allowed to be saturated in the Khoreh, if a
menstruous woman happens to see a person in the act of reciting Holy
Avesta Manthra, and the prayers are therefore rendered nugatory. The
same reasons may be adduced for not allowing a menstruous woman to
be present at a holy place. When it is understood that vibration is at the
bottom of the universe, and that no object in the universe is free from
the laws of Staota, it is quite clear that all the rules of Ashoi and of
seclusion of menstruous woman etc., are based on the subtle laws of
PROPRIETY OF SECLUSION FROM Hygenic Point of View. 361
nature working in the ultra physical planes of matter. The holy places
like the fire-temples where Avesta recitals and holy rituals are taking
place, are teeming with the Manthric effects of Staota and holy Khastra
or magnetic electricity, and the presence of a mensturuous woman in
such places pollutes the atmosphere by erasing all the higher Staota by
means of the foul magnetic currents oozing out of her body. Sincerity
and earnest desire for right knowledge and not cynicism must be the
motto of the Zoroastrian priest who comes forward as a teacher
ecclesiastical of the community.
(iv.) With reference to the "profounder knowledge of hygiene of
the modern society," we must say that a majority of the
Parsees despite their boast of higher education are pitifully
ignorant of even the most rudimentary rules of hygiene or any
other modem science. In the first place the science of western
hygiene is at its present stage very imperfect; and in the
second place very few of the Parsees care, to study the various
branches of modern science. We are asked to burn saliva in
the fire by modern science so that consumption germs may
not disseminate. The Zoroastrian science forbids the contact
of any excreta with fire. Modern science seems to be ignorant
of the fact that heat instead of destroying germs and microbes
in certain cases, helps to multiply them by millions and
crores. It will require many years for modern science to come
up to the level of understanding the laws of ultra-physical and
ultra-microscopic germs and the laws of subtle magnetic
currents propounded in the Zoroastrian religion, and
especially, in the Vendidad. Witness the silly argument of the
writer of Zoroastrian Theology. He argues on the ground of
'profound knowledge of hygiene of the modern society' that
there is no need of “such archaic injunctions” as those of
seclusion of menstruous women. Why are persons suffering
from consumption, typhoid, pneumonia, small-pox and other
infectious or contagious diseases kept in a secluded con-
dition from healthy persons? Are there no germs in the
discharge of menses? Has not the menstruous blood a very
offensive stench? Cannot the germs spreading over the whole
body of a menstruous woman infect healthy persons coming into
contact with her, and be the source of various unnameable
diseases. Even from a physical point of view the Zoroastrian
mandate of seclusion of menstruous women proves to be a
scientific principle, and more so from the ultra-physical
magnetic point of view. Thus the writer of Zoroastrian Theology
evinces his utter ignorance of any branch of elementary science.
(v.) Lastly in the above quotation the writer refers to the cruelty
inflicted upon a menstruous woman by "depriving her of the
opportunity of resting her loving eyes on the remains of her
dead husband or child." This is merely a sentimental view
based on no scientific argument. The dead body of a person is
not a holy thing but is regarded as "Nasu" or disintegrating
object, and the look of a menstruous woman on a dead body
augments the intensity of "Nasu" by the numerical law of tens.
The magnetic current from the eyes of a menstruous woman is
full of fine unseen microbes, and germs are caused to be
produced in seeds, grain, fruits etc., under sight of such a
woman, for the microbes in her eye-rays take rise owing to her
condition of "Drujih-i-Buji." Hence if her sight happens to fall
upon a corpse, the "Druj-i-Nasu" of the corpse and and the
"Druj-i-Buji" of the menstruous woman multiply together and
result in the product of very powerful "Drujih" which is very
injurious to all the people around. The religious dressing of
the corpse, the Avesta recital before it and the rituals that are
performed for reducing the intensity of Druj-i-Nasu--are
rendered useless and ineffective by the look of a menstruous
woman who cuts off all the higher Staota and Khastra.
The living relations and friends care much for not letting the
intensity of Druj-i.Nasu attack the dead body, and with this
idea they are scrupulous in performing all the ritualistic
arrangements for the dead body. What should the unfortunate
woman gain, if only out of a false sentiment to have a look
on the dear departed one she is allowed to augment the
intensity of Drujih or the number of unseen microbes by the
polluted glance in her menstruous condition! Moreover how
is the unfortunate woman profited if she harasses the Urvan
of the dead person lying under its own Kehrpa near the head
of the corpse for three nights after death, simply out of
sentiment to have a last look! The condition of menstruation
is not an ordinary disease, but involves grave results from the
subtle point of view of magnetism, if the rules for seclusion
propounded in the Zoroastrian religion are not properly and
wisely observed.
Thus we see that the words of the writer on p. 349 are meaningless
and meant to delude the readers who are ignorant of the original Avesta
and Pahlavi writings. It is now clearly seen that throughout his book the
writer has the underlying motive of satirizing the rules of Ashoi taught
in the Avesta and Pahlavi writings, because he dreams that the Gathas
alone and only some portion of them should be stamped as genuine
Zoroastrian teachings.
Again on p. 362 under the heading -
“An evil magnetic aura, or malign halo, believed to radiate from a woman
during the time of menses, hence her isolation most essential.” –
the writer of Zoroastrian Theology satirizes the belief in human aura as
not taught by Zoroaster. He says -
"The orthodox had zealously maintained that woman during her periods
carried with her spiritual contagion wherever she went. The theosophists came to the
help of the staunch followers of the ancient texts to show that this does happen. They
say that the scriptures speak in express terms of the
364 “Kharenangh, “Khathra,” “Khoreh” & “Gadman,” i.e. AURA.
Kingly and Aryan Glory, which scholars in general take to mean the symbolic
aggregate of the royal and national greatness of Iran. This glory, it is claimed, in the
case of an individual, is his aura, and every human being is surrounded by it. Anyone
who has developed his inherent clairvoyant powers can see other people's auras, and
from their white or black hue, grey or yellow colour, can discern where the individual
stands in the realm of spiritual progress. Every individual's aura influences those of all
others with whom he comes in contact, and is in turn affected through theirs. The aura
of a woman in her menses according to such a view, is spiritually diseased, and a
person gifted with clairvoyant vision can detect evil intelligences clustered about her,
equally ready to pounce upon those near her and cause havoc to their spiritual growth.
It was for this reason that the elders had wisely legislated absolute quiet for isolating
women during her menses, and it is the pious duty of every faithful believer to observe
the rules most scrupulously.”
A peculiar sort of sarcasm of the belief in human aura is to be
noticed in these words. The writer of the book seems to be utterly
ignorant of the fact that the ultra-physical is the foundation of the
physical, and that aura or magnetic emanation flows from every
kingdom on the earth-mineral, vegetable, animal and human. The auras
of all objects individually differ from one, another according to the
different order or grade of the soul consciousness of each object. All
Yazats and Ameshaspends have their own respective auras, and the
Creator Hormazd has His own sublime aura. Aura is the lustre or
magnetic sheen, which is very rarely visible to the physical eye. All the
various species of flowers, traits, birds and animals have their own
auras, and all the species of mankind have theirs. Even mountains,
rivers, seas, the sun, the moon and the stars have their own individual
auras or halos. The words “Kharenangh” and "Khathra" in the Avesta
and "Khoreh" and “Gadman” in Pahlavi mean halo, aura, lustre, or
magnetic sheen. We shall refer to a few kinds of halos or auras met with
in the meagre extant Avesta, so that the reader may be able to judge
properly of the most abominable attitude adopted by the writer of
Zoroastrian Theology, of ridiculing the religious belief of the followers
of Zoroastrianism. –
(i.) “Ahurem Mazdam raevantem Kharenanghantem yazamaide,"
“We attune ourselves with Ahura Mazda full of spiritual light and
-Hormazd Yasht.
(ii.) “Ughrem Kavaem Khareno mazda-datem yazamaide, ashvandrem,
thamnanghuctntem, varechanghuantem, yaokhshtiwantem,
taradatem anyaish daman, - yat asti ahurahe mazdao – yat asti ameshanam
spentanam; - yat asti mainyavanam yazatanam gaethianamcha, - yat asti
airyanam dakhyunam zatanam azatanamcha, yatcha ashaono
Zarathushtrahe – yat upanghachat Kavaem Haosravanghem – yat
upanghachat ashavanem Zarathushtrem – yat upanghachat saoshyantam
“We attune ourselves with the lofty Mazda-created ‘Kya-Khoreh’
- success-procuring, working in ascendency, health-giving, glorious,
nimble, superior to other created objects-which belongs to Ahura
Mazda-which belongs to Ameshaspends-which belongs to the spiritual
and corporal yazatas, -which belongs to the born and the unborn of
Arya countries, which belongs to holy Zarathushtra - which devolved
upon Kae-Khosru - which descended upon holy Zarathushtra- which
came upon Kae Vishtaspa- which devolved upon the victorious
. (iii)
-Jamyad Yasht § § 10, 15, 22, 56, 74, 79, 84, 89.
"Aat yat hvare-raokhshni tapayeiti, dat yat hvare-raocho
tapayeiti hishtenti mainyavaongho yazataongho satemcha
hazanghremcha, tat khareno ham-barayeinti, tat khareno
niparayeinti, tat khareno bakhshenti zam paiti ahuradatam."
“Then when the light of the sun and the lustre of the sun shine
forth, the spiritual angels stand up and collect, carry, and
distribute that aura over the Ahura-created earth."
-Khorshed Yasht § I,
"Ashim-vanghuim yazamaide, khshoithnim, berezaitim,
amavaitim, huraodam, khaparam, khareno Mazdadatem
yazamaide, savo Mazda-datem yazamaide, parendim raoratham
yazamaide, airyanem Khareno mazda-datem yaza366
maide, ughrem, Kavaem Khareno mazda-datem yazamaide, ughrem
akharetem Khareno mazda-datem yazamaide, Zarathushtrahe
Khareno mazdadatem yazamanide.”
-Siroja Yasht II § 25.
"We attune ourselves with the good Ashi, shining, lofty
courageous, beautiful, beneficent; we attune ourselves with the
Mazda-created aura; we attune ourselves with the speedy
Parendi; we attune ourselves with the Mazda-created Aryaaura,
with the bold Mazda-created Kyan-aura, with the
overpowering Mazda-created Akhareta-aura, with, the Mazdacreated
aura of Zarathushtra.”
All these Avestic references and many more prove that the idea of
“Khoreh” or aura or halo or magnetic emanation is not taught by the socalled
theosophists, but is originally a right Zoroastrian teaching. This
glory or aura is unseen light of various degrees of luminosity and
colours, and the higher the degree of a Soul in its unfoldment, the
greater is the lustre of this Khoreh. The "Poiryo-takaesh" or advanced
souls who are generally designated by the term "Kyanian" were
fortunate to possess this "Kyan-khoreh" (Av, kavaya kharenangh) which
is a kind of Khoreh developing with the spiritually advanced souls only.
The "Khoreh" of mankind emanates from the “Tanu” or physical
tenement, through the "Kehrpa" or invisible counterpart, and hence in
proportion as the "Tanu" and “Kehrpa” are rendered subtle and pure the
“Khoreh” rises higher up in luster, intensity and area of its radiation
power. If the life-leading is not in strict accordance with the principles
of Ashoi which are all taught for “Nish-nash-i-Druj” i.e. annulling the
Druj as taught in Gatha 44 § 13, the reverse process begins to work
upon the “Khoreh" on account of the gross nature of the "Kehrpa"
within. The "Khoreh" loses its lustre and fineness of colours and is full
of un-microscopic germs, in proportion as the life-leading is wallowed
in the pool of all kinds of Drujih. It is with the fundamental object of
preserving the intensity of the lustre and fineness of "Khoreh" and its
concomitant spiritual powers that Zoroastrians
are strictly warned against all kinds of Drujih, and are advised to
transmute Drujih into Asar-i-Roshnih by the observance of Ashoiprinciples.
During the menstrual period of a woman or the night discharge of
a man, the “Khoreh” is impaired on account of the catabolism in the
“Tanu” or physical body, the Kehrpa and the Ushtana. If any pure
person happens to come in contact with such a woman or such a man,
he gets also polluted and his “Khoreh” is impaired in turn. Hence
isolation during the period of menses, and instantaneous bath with a
certain formula for a person with night-discharge are enjoined upon all
the followers of Zoroastrianism. To those who understand even a little
of magnetism all this is science pure and simple, and a serious study
with patient reflection in the line of research of all these principles of
spiritual unfoldment is the only necessity felt among the so-called
educated co-religionists.
It is with the same noble motive of preserving one's “Khoreh” or
magnetic aura that the rules of magnetic circles termed "Karsha” in the
Avesta are specially given, and the rules for drawing three, six, or nine
magnetic circles in various emergencies of various rituals are also
prescribed just like the rules of “Gaim” or “Kadam,” noticed above.
If the writer of Zoroastrian Theology had studied even the extant
Avesta and Pahlavi literature in its entirety, he would not have laughed
out the idea of “Khoreh,” “spiritual contagion of a menstruous woman”
"mutual influence of different auras" and “isolation of woman during
menses,” as theosophic teachings. We have already seen in the Summary
of the 21 Nasks given above in the first chapter on p. 9. that "the
sickness owing to the look of an evil eye or the vicinity of a menstruous
woman" is a subject treated in the “Husparam Nask.” That isolation for
many valid reasons, of a menstruous woman is a Zoroastrian teaching is
also proved from the strict prohibition of cohabiting with a menstruous
woman in Vendidad XVIII 67-68. Considering the advantages of
isolation either from a purely physical point of view or from an ultraphysical
368 Virtue or Aura REFERRED TO IN THE BIBLE.
or even spiritual point of view, the Zoroastrian mandate of isolation is
beneficial under any circumstances to any species of mankind. Even the
Bible has referred to this subject indirectly thus: -
" When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and
touched his garment, for she said, if I may touch but his
clothes, I shall be whole. And straightway the fountain of her
blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was
healed of that plague. And Jesus immediately knowing in
himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in
the press, and said who touched my clothes! And he looked
round to see her that had done this thing! "
-The Holy Bible; the New Testament St. Mark Chapter 5.
§ § 27-32.
We learn therefore that virtue or aura or magnetic emanation undergoes a
considerable change for the worse when a menstruous woman touches anotherperson.
The system of isolation of menstruous women may strike as new to
some, but with the advance of the knowledge of the laws of personal and
human magnetism and aura, this scientific mandate of Zoroastrian origin will
prove to be ordinary commonsense truth of everyday observance.
Many more details about this Zoroastrian mandate of seclusion of
women in menses can be given in order to explain clearly the
disadvantages of the present efforts of the civilized countries to put
woman on the same material level of man. The Parsees require a
religion of absolute physical convenience, and the girls must be regular
in attendance in schools or colleges. A school or college-going girl
cannot stay away at home, and therefore the mandate of seclusion during
menses had better be forgone. In spite of all the boast of modern
civilization we must say that very few can have a clear conception of the
proper place filled by man and woman respectively in nature. Ignoring
of nature and
nature's laws is not civilisation but utter barbarism wrongly stamped as
education. . Both man and woman must be educated physical]y,
mentally, morally, and spiritually, and both sexes mul:it be at home
with all the unseen laws of nature working incessantly in all the
activities around us. Education of the intellect is not the goal, but a
means to the higher education or unfoldment of the soul, and that sort of
university education or reading _f a certain number of books which
results in the narrowness of brain-facultie::l, and teaches cynicism and
ridicule of all the laws of nature such as are taught in the most ancient
universal religioll of Zarathushtra, instead of patient inquiry into all
these laws accompanied with a reverential observance thereof in
eyeryday lire,-does not at all deserye the name of education. The
modern cry of infant mortality, obstetric diseases and deaths, pl'em_tur_
deaths of both the sexes of the Parsee community have their root ill the
so-called school and college education which does not in the least
include any item of religious training in itl:l curricula. The present day
educated Zoroastrians of both sexes have not the slightest idea of the
principles of Ashoi taught in the Zoroastrian' scdptures; they never
dream of whatUDrujih " implies and how to . avoid it ; they are
absolutely una.\vare of the object o_ their birth in this world, the
responsibility of their soul, the' state of the soul after death, and the
necessity and efficacy of' Zoroastrian rituals alll.l prayers.
As a result we procure men like the writer of Zoroastrian Theology
preaching proselytism as _ panacea for all the social, moml, and
spiritual evils of the community. This is the most critical time of the
community when an the Ashoi principles are deliberately ignored and
laughed out even by some of the Parsee journalists, and if the
community is drifted on by the same wave of non-Zoroastrian lifeleading
for some years more, it will not be wrong to say that the
community will be nearer the point of extinction in spite of a number of
proselytes added thereto or some illegitimate children of kept alien
mistresses invested with Sudreh and Kusti.
We shall conclude this chapter with very striking words from the
Vendidad. A long essay may be written on these words for
370 Dravand i.e. EVIL ONES re-incarnate ACCORDING TO VENDIDAD.
they convey a considerable amount of meaning. It is left to the reader
to judge whom these words are properly applicable to -
" Vispe dravanto tanu-drujo yoi adereto-tkaesha,
Vispe adereto-tkaesho yoi asraosho,
'Vispe asraosho yoi anashavano,
Vispe anashavano yoi tanu-pereto."
" All the dravant’s i.e. those who commit a breach of the laws of
Ashoi, and who keep their body vibrating with Drujih or evil magnetic
influence, who are not observers of religious canons; all the nonobservers
of religious canons who are far from Srosh i.e. the collective
Yazadic force; all those who are far from Srosh who are not holy or
non-practitioners of Ashoi; all the unholy are recurring to the physical
tenement or are re-incarnating.
-Vendidad XVI; 18.
This idea of the Vendidad had also been noticed by us in the
Gathas XLVI : 11 and XLIX; 11 above, It reminds us that there is no
second physical birth or re-incarnation for a Zoroastrian who follows
all the rules of Ashoi and lives a life genuinely Zoroastrian. The
Zoroastrian religion being the Universal Law of Unfoldment as taught
by the Holy Prophet Zoroaster, enables the strict follower thereof to
live a life of Unfoldment, which does not necessitate the soul's return to
this earth again. But for those who are nominally called Zoroastrians,
who are really “Dravands” in their every day life, who run away from
the tenets of Ashoi in all the walks of life, who live only for the sake of
the enjoyment of the material existence, who keep their body constantly
in touch with "Druj" or unseen evil magnetic currents, who never care
to practically uphold all the Ashoi tarikats or canons of Holiness, who
never care to acquire a knowledge of the laws of their religion, who are
spiritually dead and materially living, who are against the goal of nature
physically, mentally, morally and spiritually, who have not made their
physical existence "Tan-i-pasin" or final-most physical existence by
living a life of spiritual refinement
Zoroastrian Law – “FREEING FROM FIGHT & FROM WEAPON” 371
and unfoldment,-such pseudo-Zoroastrians cannot free themselves
from the physical attractions, and they are entrapped into fleshly
existence again and again. The Zoroastrian Mazdayacnian Law being
"Fraspayaokhedram," and "Nidasnaithishem" as taught in the
Confession of Faith. Formula Yacna Ha. XII, the genuine follower of
that Law has to be "free from the constant fight" between the two poles
Asha and Druja or Asar-i-Roshnih and Asar-i-Tarikih, for the
Zoroastrian religion has the property of “throwing away the fight”
(Fra-spa-yaokhedram). A sincere follower of the Zoroastrian Law has
also to give up for good the physical instrument of the soul viz, the
bodily existence, for it is the second property of Zoroastrianism to
enable the follower "to put down the instrument" (Ni-da-snaithishem).
Hence we deduce the following axioms of practical purity even from the
meagre extant Zoroastrian Avesta scriptures, viz., -
(i) The seclusion or isolation of menstruous women is originally
a Zoroastrian mandate given in the Vendidad, which
belongs to the Nask-i-Javit-shida-dad.
(ii) The condition of a menstruous woman during the period is
that of "Druj-i-Buji" or evil magnetic or auric influence
resulting from the discharge of menstrual blood.
(iii) The aloofness from all sorts of Drujih or evil magnetic
influence is the special teaching of the Gathas, Yashts,
Vendidad etc.
(iv) The Zoroastrian principle of Ashoi in aggregate is to be
put into practice in every day life in order to annihilate
(v) The Law of Polarity termed “Hamaestara” in the Avesta, is
to be incessantly fought with by transmuting the “Asar-i-
Tarikih” or materialistic tendency into the "Asar-i-
Roshnih" or spiritual momentum by means of observance
of Ashoi principles.
Ten Axioms re Practical Piety FROM AVESTA SCRIPTURES.
The term "Drujih" implies a collection of unseen unmicroscopic
germs, bacteria, bacilli, or microbes which are
very destructive to the "Khoreh" or pure magnetic aura.
The high level of purity of "Khoreh" is very essential for
the fulfillment of the goal viz. Spiritual Unfoldment, for
without the required point of the subtlety of the aura, the
"Kehrpa" cannot be sensitive enough to saturate the
“Staota” or vibration-colours of the Avesta Manthra which
serve as the ultimate spiritual nourishment of the Urvan or
The principle of Ashoi implies 72 canons of strict rectitude
and purity--physical, mental, moral and spiritual, by the
observance of which all the various species of "Drujih" are
to be shun viz., Mithra drujih (auric contagion arising
from falsehood, breach of promise, insincerity, and
unscrupulousness); Nasu-drujih (auric contagion arising
from any animal body detached from vitality or any dead
matter); Hikhar or Heher-drujih (auric pollution caused by
the hair and nail, detached from the body and also coming
in friction with the surrounding atmosphere); Buji-drujih
(bad magnetic current produced during the menstrual
period in the case of females, during seminal discharges of
males, and during masturbation, sodomy, adultery and all
other sexual sins), Saene-drujih (the destructive magnetic
vibration-current accumulation of very bad thoughts
continuously dwelt upon); Hashi-drujih, Ghashi-drujih,
Paesish-drujih which are all ignominious abominable
possible extremes of immorality.
All the Bajs and Nirangs or Chants or short formulae are
given for the defense of the practitioner thereof against the
attacks of Drujih-currents in accordance with the laws of
Staota and Mithra or vibrationary colours of Word-sound -
and Thought-force.
OPINIONS OF Senior Avesta Students re ISOLATION IN MENSES. 373
The Zoroastrian Law is the unique religion, which preaches
the highest point of physical and ultra-physical or magnetic
purity necessary for the ultimate object of Uru or Spiritual
Unfoldment, and all the ideal Ashoi-principles including
the isolation and seclusion of menstruous women during
that period, inculcated in the Zoroastrian religion, are
based on the main pivot of "Khoreh" or Purity of human
Opinions of Four Learned Parsee Dasturs and Priests re Seclusion
during Menses.
The following opinions of some learned Parsi Dasturs and
scholars on the subject of isolation of menstruous women will serve as
food for reflection for the inquiring mind -
(i) Shams-ul-Ulama Dr. J, J. Modi Ph, D., C. I. E. in his book of
“Social Life in the Avestan Age” says -
"Seclusion to be observed by women under certain circumstances - The woman
of that age had to observe several kinds of isolation under her certain circumstances.
She always kept herself at a certain distance from fire, water, barsam and
holy men in her menstruous and obstetric condition. She did not come in contact
with her food, water etc ; and food and water were supplied to her from at a
distance….With reference to the custom prevalent in the Avestan age of isolating the
woman in her menses, and which is upheld by mandates in the Avesta, it is said that
it was an old custom among many ancient nations."
The learned Doctor Modi in answer to the inquiry on the subject
holds further that-
"Yes, the custom is enjoined in our religion of keeping apart woman during
menstruation ; Reasons: that the woman in her menses is in a kind of illness which
affects physically those that come in contact with her ; and indirectly also
spiritually. My personal opinion: I am in favour of their remaining aloof. I
remember having read that people not properly observing cleanliness and
segregation under the circumstances increase leprosy and such other complaints"
(ii) Shams-ul-Ulama Dastur Darab Peshotan Sanjana B.A.,
informs as under. -
"The doctrine indicates in clear words that the menstruos women shall
dwell in a healthy place, in a room apart from the rooms in common use, fifteen paces
distant from the fire, fifteen paces from the sacred water, fifteen paces from the
Beresma, and three paces from the faithful Zoroastrian, For the first three days she
shall eat bread and milk and live on very light food The members of the family shall
remain three paces apart from her, even her own little children. If the lady does not
preserve herself from the company of the family members, much injury is done to her,
and the house becomes unfit for the dwelling of the faithful Zoroastrian who ever
hopes for moral and spiritual progress in this earthly life."
(iii) Dastur Dr. Jamaspji M. Jamaspasha M.A., Ph.D., says. –
"No woman deliberately committing breach of the religious cannons of holiness
is allowed to attend at a religious ceremony or to participate therein, unless she is
careful to observe isolation during her menses, and follows the mandates of piety. A
menstruous woman is forbidden to stay upstairs from time out of mind, as the
quarters for such women are to be entirely set apart and reserved only for that
purpose. If a menstruous woman moves about on any story of a building no religious
ceremony ought to be performed in that house ; and if any such ceremony has been
performed in such premises, its efficacy is annulled and such ceremony cannot be
looked upon as legitimately performed."
(iv) Another Avesta and Pahlavi Scholar Ervad Shehriarji Dadabhai
Bhroacha writes in his book- "A Brief Sketch of the Zoroastrian
Religion and Customs" –
"According to the Vendidad every Zoroastrian woman during menstruation must
also isolate herself. It will be observed that these are very salutary injuctions, and the
wisdom and propriety of observing them are recognized by modern medical science."
It is hoped that the writer of Zoroastrian Theology will condescend
to ponder over the opinions of the above-mentioned four Senior Avesta
students, and see how far he has been led astray while attempting to run
diametrically opposite to the self-evident grand teachings of piety and
holiness in the so-called Later (!) Avesta Scriptures.
The Writer's views re Zoroaster's place in the Universe.
In the book of Zoroastrian Theology a separate chapter dealing
with the position of the prophet Zoroaster would have fulfilled the
natural expectation of many a reader. But we find some stray
references to this most exalted personage with the most sublime soul in
the various chapters of the book. We do not find absurd and
nonsensical views of the writer about Zoroaster's place in the universe
to so great an extent as about other subjects we have already dealt with
in the foregoing pages. But as the writer of Zoroastrian Theology
regards all other Avesta as post-Zoroastrian except the Gathas, he
cannot confidently and boldly assert his views about the position of
Zoroaster from these so called Later Avestan writings. We shall
therefore devote this chapter to a superficial treatment of Zoroaster's
place in the universe, and the degree of Spiritual Unfoldment attained
by him.
Very few of the Avesta students have any precise idea of the most
exalted and supremest degree of unfoldment of the soul and spiritual
powers of the most benign prophet of prophets Zoroaster the Spitaman.
Most of the Avesta students including the writer of Zoroastrian
Theology seem from their writings to believe that Zoroaster was an
ordinary man just like, themselves with the difference of a very widely
developed intellect of this world-prophet. Just as the American Red
Indian or the Batavian Savage has not the slightest idea of the existence
of the intellect and the wonderful results achieved by master-intellects,
in the same way we who are at present absolutely in the dark as to the
existence of the Soul, have no idea at all of the latent powers of the
Soul within us, and the possibility of miracles which can be performed
by Master-Souls. To those who understand the mathematical law of
infinity, the infinite possibility of the development of the spiritual
powers within ourselves, and of the gradual unfoldment of Urvan or
Soul, is found to be a veritable fact or rather an immutable active law
of nature. Just as there are degrees of physical strength and weakness,
of intellectual
376 REFERENCES TO THE Unique position of Zoroaster IN AVESTA.
prowess and inertia, so are there various degrees of spiritual unfoldment
and infoldment. There are the souls of Ahura. Mazda, the Amesha
Spends and the Yazads, which differ widely in the scale of spiritual
capacity. Saints and prophets who have consciously developed their
spiritual faculties of responding to the unseen forces at work in nature,
possess souls far removed and much higher in degree from and than the
souls of the generality of mankind. Geniuses or master-minds differ
from savages in point of intellect or brain-capacity; so do prophets and
saints differ from us in point of soul progress. It would be mere lack of
sense on the part of anyone who tries to put a Zulu or some other savage
of the world on the level of Darwin, Huxley or Oliver Lodge or William
Crookes, the 'world's scientists. What should be said then of one who
puts the world-prophet Zoroaster on a line with an ordinary man !
We shall therefore, go through some passages from the extant
Avestan Scriptures which will give us some faint glimpse of the most
exalted position enjoyed by Zoroaster in the roll of universal spiritual
unfoldment. These passages will give us food for reflection on the
unlimited possibility of knowledge of all the Laws of Nature in
accordance which both the processes of Infoldment and Unfoldment are
ceaselessly going on in perfect harmony with the laws of Staota Yacnathe
Laws of Primary Existence.
The unique exalted position of Zoroaster whose soul had well-nigh
approached Ahura Mazda, whose Farohar was most worthy of
reverence, and whose Khoreh or aura had the highest rate of luminosity,
is proved from the Fravardin Yasht, Jamyad Yasht, Ashish Vangh Yasht
and the Gathas, etc., etc. –
(i) "Zarathushtrem vîspahe anghêush astvatô ahûmcha ratûmcha paoirîmcha
tkaêshem ýazamaide hâtãm hudhâstemem hâtãm hukhshathrôtemem hâtãm
raêvastemem hâtãm kharenanghastemem hâtãm ýecnyôtemem hâtãm
vahmyôtemem hâtãm khshnaothvôtemem hâtãm frasastôtemem ýô nâ ishtascha
ýesnyascha vahmyascha vaoche ýathana kahmâichit hâtãm ashât haca ýat
- Farvardin Yasht § 152.
ENUMERATION OF THE Spiritual Potencies of Zoroaster. 377
“We attune ourselves with Zarathushtra the Ahu or Spiritual Master on
the Spiritual planes, and Ratu or Spiritual teacher on the physical planes
of the entire physical and ultra-physical existence, and the Poiryotkaesh
or far-advanced in the observance of the Law-having the Best Wisdom
among the advancing ones, having the Best Right Power among the
advancing ones, having the greatest Rae or lustre of spiritual insight,
having the Best Khoreh or aura, most worthy of attunement and
veneration among the advancing ones, most worthy of propitiation and
glorification among the advancing ones, who on account of the Best Ashoi
or Holiness has been vouchsafed unto us as the most beloved, worthiest of
attunement and adoration for any one among the advancing ones."
(ii) “Yat upanghacat ashavanem zarathushtrem anumatêe daênayâi
anukhtêe daênayâi, anvarshtêe daênayâi ýat as vîspahe anghêush astvatô ashem
ashavastemô xshathrem huxshathrôtemô raêm raêvastemô khereno
kharenanghastemô verethra verethravastemô.”
-Jamyad Yasht § 79.
“Which Kyan khoreh had trailed with Holy Zarathushtra in accordance
with the thought, word and deed of the Law; which was of the entire
pjysical and ultra-physical existence holiest of the holy, most powerful of
the powerful, most lustrous of the lustres of spiritual knowledge, most
shining of the auras, most victorious of the victories."
(iii) “Adhdt uiti fravashat yo Spitomo Zarathushtro, yo poiryo mashkayo,
staota ashem yat vahishtem, yazata Ahurem Mazdam, yazata Ameshe
Spente, yenghe zanthaecha vakhshaccha urvasen apo urvaraoscha,
yenghe zanthaecha vakhshaecha ukhshina apo urvaraoscha. "
- Ashish Vangh Yasht § 18.
" Thereupon it was declared that he was Spitama Zarathushtra, the first
of mankind who practiced the Staota of Asha Vahishta, who attuned
himself with Ahura Mazda, who attuned himself with Amesha Spentas, in
whose birth and advancement the waters and the plants rejoiced, in
whose birth and growth the waters and the plants flourished."
378 ZOROASTER the One Advanced Soul-GATHA 29 § 8 & 51 § 12.
(iv) “Yehe zãthaêca vakhshaêcha urvâsen âpô urvaråscha ýehe
zãthaêcha vakhshaêcha ukhshina âpô urvaråoscha, ýehe
zãnthaêcha vakhshaêcha nimravañta vîspåo speñtô-dâtåo
“ ‘Ushta-nô zâtô âthrava ýô spitâmô zarathushtrô, frâ-nô
ýazâite zaothrâbyô steretô-baresma zarathushtrô, idha apãm
vîjasâiti vanguhi daêna mâzdayasnish vîspâish avi karshavãn
ýâish hafta.”
-Fravardin Yasht §§ 93, 94.
“ In whose birth and advancement the waters and the plants rejoiced, in
whose birth and progress the waters and the plants progressed, at whose
birth and advancement the entire Spenta-created creation utter forth its
joy."-" Bliss, that the A.thravan Spitama Zarathushtra is born for our
sake. Zarathushtra will get us attuned by means of libations and spread -
Baresma. Henceforth shall the Mazdayacnian Good Law go on actively
throughout the seven Keshvars.”
(v} "Aem moi ida visto ye ne aevo sasnao gushata,
Zarathusthtro Spitamo ; hvo ne mazda vashti ashaicha,
Charekerethra srvayanghe hyat hoi hudemem dyai vakhedrhya.”
-Gatha HA. 29 § 8,
“He who has alone heard my canons and is and is known to me as such is
Spitama Zarathushtra. He is willing to promulgate the duties and
functions through Mazda for the sake of Asha, and hence I deliver unto
him the good power of utterance.”
(vi) "Zarathushtrem Spitamem yat ahmi ururaosta asto.”
-Gatha Ha 51 § 12.
“Spitama Zarathushtra who has been furthermost advanced as the
messenger or prophet."
“Yim ratûm paiti-daêmca vîspaêshãm stârãm fradathat Ahurô Mazdåo,
ýatha narãm zarathushtrem, ýim nôit meregheñte angrô mainyush, nôit
ýâtavô pairikåoscha, nôit ýâtavô mashyânãm, naêdha vîspe hathra daêva
maharkathâi upa-dareznavañti.”
- Tir Yasht § 44.
Zoroaster-THE Most Advanced Soul IN SPIRITUALITY. 379
“Ahura Mazda has fixed the Star Tishtrya as the lord and overseer
of all other stars just as he has fixed Zarathushtra as the lord and
overseer of men, whom neither Ahrman, nor genii and fairies, nor human
sorcerers, nor all Daevas collectively can vanquish and dare to kill."
(viii.) “Zarathushtrahe spitâmahe idha ashaonô ashîmcha fravashîmcha
ýazamaide - paoiryâi vohu mamnânâi, paoiryâi vohu vaokushe, paoiryâi
vohu vâverezushe, paoiryâi athaurune, paoiryâi rathaêshtâi paoiryâi
vâstryâi fshuyeiñte paoiryâi fravaêdhâi paoiryâi fravaêdhayamnâi paoiryâi
hanghananâi paoiryâi hanghanushe gãmca ashemca ukhdhemcha,
ukhdakhyâcha sraoshem khshathremcha vîspacha vohu mazda-dhâta
-Fravardin Yasht § 88.
“We attune ourselves with the Piety and Farohar here of holy Spitama
Zarathushtra-as the most advanced thinker of good, as the most advanced goodspeaker,
as the most perfect doer of good, as the most advanced priest, warrior,
beneficent farmer, as the most advanced acquirer of knowledge, and imparter of
knowledge, as the most advanced deserving one of the creation, Holiness, the
Word, response and power of the Word, and the entire Mazda-created Good of
(ix.) “Atratam Zarathushtro tanvaschit khakhayao ushtanem,
Dadaiti paurvatatem mananghascha vangheush mazdai,
Shyothnahya ashai yacha ukhdakhyacha sraoshem khshathremcha."
-Gatha Ha 33 § 14.
“Zarathushtra dedicates the very vitality of his own body as a gift along with the
excellence of good Mind for the sake of Mazda, as well as response and power of the
Word and Action for the sake of Asha."
These nine references from the extant Avesta texts with their
imperfect translations are quite adequate to give to the reader a faint
glimpse of the majestic personality of Zoroaster, and his position par
excellence as the most exalted soul with the highest spiritual
unfoldment. The Gathic idea of the unique position - "Yo no aevo
sasnao gushata Zarathushtro Spitamo" - "who alone has listened to the
canons of ours, Spitama Zarathushtra"- has been elaborately explained
by the other Avestan passages. The Khoreh or aura of Zarathushtra was
surpassing that of any
one of the advancing souls. He has reached the zenith of spiritual
unfoldment (Uru-raost), and with all the spiritual powers thus unfolded
he was attuned with Ahura Mazda and Amesha Spentas, and in fact was
in tune with the entire creation. Such a soul was destined to be the
viceroy or spiritual representative of Ahura Mazda, Asha Vahishta or
Sraosha. With such a high and unique position Zoroaster was willing
only to carry out the will of Ahura Mazda – Thy will be done - "Yatha
ne anghat Yatha hvo vasat"- “May it be so unto us as He wills it" – as
said in the Gatha Ha 29 § 4. Having this central thought in his mind,
Zoroaster has given the word "Yatha Ahu Vairyo, atha ratush ashatchit
hacha” – “as is the will (for the Spiritual Unfoldment and Renovation
of the entire universe) of Ahu (i.e. the Lord of the Spiritual planes) so is
the same will of Ratu (i.e. the prophet or spiritual master on the
physical planes) only on account of Holiness." Thus from this very First
Word it is seen that both "Ahu" and "Ratu" are of one Will - "Ahu" i.e.
the Lord of the Spiritual planes Ahura Mazda, and "Ratu" or
Zarathushtra the spiritual grand master on the physical planes.
The conference between Ahura Mazda and Asha in the Gatha Ha
29 §§ 2, 3 further proves that Zoroaster was the only soul fitted to bring
to the physical planes knowledge spiritual of the Laws of Nature. Gatha
Ha 29 § 6 is specially meant for testifying to the un-paralleled
exceptional position of Zoroaster in the scale of Spiritual Evolution or
Unfoldment, and it runs as under -
“At e vaochat Ahura Mazdao vidvao vafush vyanaya,
Noit aeva ahu vista naeda ratush ashatchit hacha,
At zi thwa fshuyantaecha vastryaicha thworeshta tatasha.”
-Gatha Ha 29 § 6.
“Thereupon the omniscient beneficent Ahura Mazda clearly
declared that neither Ahu nor Ratu for the mere sake of Holiness is
known to me. Hence the Creator has moulded thee indeed as a
progress-rendering farmer.”
ZOROASTER - Teacher of Soul's Majestic March UPTO GARO-NMANA. 381
This section conveys a good deal of mystic meaning. Ahura.
Mazda in this paragraph openly avers that no other "Ahu" or " Ratu"
perfectly attuned with Ashoi is in His cognizance except Zarathushtra.
In other words the only "Ahu" or Spiritual Master well-versed in the
Divine Moral Order of the Universe, and the only "Ratu" i.e. the
preceptor and preacher of the Universal Laws of Unfoldment in the
physical world, cognized by Ahura Mazda as entirely fitted for the
most arduous majestic task on account of “Asha Vahishta Asha
Sraeshta" "the Best and Most Excellent Rectitude and Holiness," – is
Spitama Zarathushtra. It is for this inner underlying deep import that
Ahura Mazda further declares that Zarathushtra has been moulded as a
progress-renderer (Fshuyantaecha), for it is Zarathushtra alone who
can teach the Laws of Unfoldment of the Soul in order to enable the
soul to go along its majestic march across the "Chinvato-peretu" or the
bridge-like link between the visible and the invisible worlds, through
the portal gate of "Dadar-i-gehan" - the opening entrance unto the six
Keshvars- Vourubareshti, Vourujareshti, Arejahi, Savahi, Fradadafshu
and Vidadafshu, through the realms of the Adar-i-Mino-Karko or the
Unseen Active Energy Fire – the prime origin of the physical and ultraphysical
states of existence, on towards the Garo-nmana the abode of
Song Celestial where Ahura Mazda resides. In the same deep sense is
Zarathushtra styled a Spiritual Farmer (Vastryaicha), for he is verily
the sower of the tree of knowledge of the Laws of Unfoldment, its
preserver, tender and nourisher, the reaper of its fruit and the giver
thereof to the other hungry souls who are aspiring after "Ushta" or
Immortal Bliss of "Garo-Nmana." This is the grand undertaking and
office of Zarathushtra, divinely entrusted to him of being a "Fshuyant”
and "Vastra,” – which no man of whatever intellectual capacity and
calibre can ever be expected to carry out to the entire satisfaction of
Ahura Mazda.
Such a soul-the specially chosen Zarathushtra of Ahura Mazdacan
never be put or regarded to be on the same level as that of
ordinary mortals like ourselves. No doubt Zoroaster came down to this
earth as a man, but at the same time he
was quite distinct from ordinary mortals. His physical body has the
physical atoms quite different from the atoms of the ordinary mortals.
He was known by the appellation “Nafs-i-Mavalida” i.e. the soul or
essence of the three Kingdoms of nature-mineral, vegetable and animal
including mankind. The soul of Zarathushtra, having attained the
highest point of the mount of Evolution required the subtlest physical
atoms for his physical tenement which could emanate the most
luminous Kyan Khoreh and other higher auras, and which could fully
respond to the vibrations received from Ahura Mazda, Asha, Vohu
Manangha and Sraosha. The “Nafs-i-Mavalida” tenement knew no
physical death as in the case of ordinary mortals. The atoms of the
body of such a soul dissolve themselves into ultra-physical matter at
the time of the completion of the soul's great duty herein this world.
The nine constituents of man-viz., Tanu, Gaetha, Azda, Kehrpa,
Tevishi, Ushtana, Urvan, Baodangh and Fravashi-are all harmoniously
attuned with one another, and the higher the rate of vibration and
Staota of the Urvan, the greater is the subtlety of all physical and ultraphysical
constituents. The Urvan of Zoroaster being one of the highest
unfolded class of souls, the physical tenement for such a soul must
have its atoms very rare and fine in their rate of subtlety.
When we remember the three classes into which souls are divided
we shall have a clear idea of the position of the soul of Zoroaster, and
hence of the capability of response to higher vibrations on account of
the special fineness of his physical and ultra-physical constituents. The
first or highest is known by the term "Nabanazdishtanam
Fravashinam” i.e. those souls who have progressed furthest on to the
spiritual existence, who have gone "nearest the centre" or Ahura
Mazda. The second is termed " Poiryo-tkaeshanam Fravashinam”
which includes all the souls that have advanced in holiness and are
“premier law-abiding", who are co-workers with Asha Vahishta in the
Law of Divine Moral Order of the Universe. The third or the lowest in
degree is known by the name “Ashaonam Fravashinam,” and this class
includes all souls who during life on the earth follow strictly the
ZOROASTER RANKS AMOMG “Nabanazdishtanam" Class of Souls. 383
mandates of Ashoi. The "Poiryotkaeshanam" Souls have severed
connection with this earth for good and are progressing in the Six
Keshwars, while the "Ashaonam" Souls are saintly souls helping the
"Asar-i-Roshnih" by a stringent adherence to Ashoi-principles and
prepare themselves for salvation from physical life. All souls that are not
pertaining to "Ashaonam" are termed "Dravatam" or deviated ones i.e.
those who have gone astray from the Path of Ashoi-rules taught in the
Zoroastrian religion.
Each of these three main groups of souls have nine Orders
according to the degrees of Spiritual Unfoldment in each of the twentyseven
Orders in all. The world-prophet Zoroaster who is "Uru-raost" or
furthermost advanced in unfoldment belongs to the seventh Order of
the "Nabanazdishtanam" class of souls. Hence from the point of view
of the degree of Spiritual Unfoldment; how very unwise it would be to
say that Zoroaster was a man like ourselves. We who have deviated
from the strict observance of Ashoi-principles, who are drowned into
the deepest abyss of various Drujihs, cannot put ourselves within even
the last group, viz. "Ashaonam Fravashinam" Souls. What a high
presumption on our part to compare the soul of Zoroaster pertaining to
the seventh high Order of the highest group Nabanazdishtanam
Fravashinam Souls with ourselves who cannot be included even in the
lowest Order of the lowest grade of "Ashaonam Fravashinam” Souls!
Again from the point of view of the power of understanding or
cognizance, we can see the contrast between the understanding power
of Zoroaster and that of an ordinary intellectual person. As one of the
"Nabanazdishtanam" Souls and of the Seventh Order in that group
Zoroaster was fortunate to possess the power of understanding called
"Asn-i-Vir" or "Heroic Consciousness" on account of which he was
commissioned by Ahura Mazda in consultation with Asha as said in the
Gathas to execute the grand work of preaching the Law of Ahura Mazda
for the Spiritual Progress and Unfoldment of Souls on the earth and of
the entire created things. The souls of the seventh, eighth and ninth
of the Poiryotkaeshanam Fravashinam have the special understanding
capacity termed "Asn-i-Nar" or "Manly Consciousness" which only very
highly progressed souls like those of Frashaoshtra and Jamaspa could
possess. The third kind of consciousness is termed "Asn-i-kherad" or
"Wisdom-consciousness" which is developed in the souls of the
"Ashaonam" class who live a life of Ashoi for the sake of the upliftment
of the soul. This Asn-i-kherad is the power of Innate Wisdom or
Intuition Proper which can be acquired only by holy souls as we have
learnt from Gatha XXXIV; 6.
"Yoi noit Ashem mainyanta aeibyo duire vohu as mano.”
"Those who do not think of Ashoi keep Vohu Mana or
Genuine Wisdom far from them."
And lastly the knowledge acquired by the souls of the lowest Order
of the "Ashaonam" Class by listening to the Dastur or Religious
Instructor who possesses Asn-i-kherad is termed Gushosrud-Kherad or
wisdom heard by the ears. The Avestic "Asn-Khratu" and "Gaoshosruta
Khratu" of which the Pahlavi forms are “Asn-i-Kherad" and
"Gusho-Srud-Kherad" are always found connected with the function of
the archangel Vohu Manangha and the angel Manthra Spenta in the
Avesta Siroja Yasht which contains appellations and functions and
epithets of all the 33 intelligences. Hence we see that we who do not
belong even to the “Ashaonam” class of souls, can never presume to
have even "Gusho-srud-Kherad" and still less "Asn-i-Kherad." The
secular knowledge received from reading books cannot properly
speaking be termed "Gusho-srud-Kherad" in its strictly technical sense.
The highest cultured intellect of a master-mind-of a well-versed
scientist-is nothing compared with the Asn-i-Kherad of a soul of the
"Ashaonam" class, and the best developed intellect admits of no
comparison at all between the Asn-i-Nar of the Poiryotkaeshanam class
of souls. How then can it with any propriety be said that Zoroaster who
possessed that rare gem of premier understanding-Asn-i-Vir-was a
practical thinker of his age like ourselves!
We have learnt from these two very graphic points of view, -viz. of
the degree or position of the soul and of the understanding-that
Zarathushtra who has advanced upto the seventh Order of the
"Nabanazdishtanam" class and who possessed the highest
consciousness or power of comprehension of the Laws of the Universe,
called Asn-i-Vir – must be looked up to with reverence and adoration as
a unique personality on the earth who is unsurpassed.
We can have no opinion at all of the scholarship of men like the
writer of Zoroastrian Theology who depicts such a venerable
personality in terms of
"the practical genius of Iran." on p. 15, and
"the realist, practical, common-sense thinker" on p. 16.
The writer seems to be ignorant of the immense width of the gulf
between the soul of Zoroaster standing on the summit of the mountain
of unfoldment and the soul of "Dravatam" or sinners like ourselves who
are playing in the darkness of the deep valley of infoldment.
At the same time on p. 63 the writer says -
“Such is the great message of Hope that the prophet of Iran brings to the world of
humanity from Ahura Mazda.”
We are amazed to see the phrase “prophet of Iran” used by the
writer, and we are at a loss to understand in what connotation the word
“prophet” is used by him. Similarly on p. 45 he says -
"There is much disorder in the world, and the situation demands the services of a
great master-mind, a genius, no philosopher, nay a prophet."
If the writer had only pointed out that Zoroaster was beyond the
average capacity of a master-mind, that he was a master-soul of the
highest order, he could have very ably done it, for he says on the same
p. 45 –
386 Miracles of Zoroaster, - A FACT FROM HIS divine delegation.
“After patient deliberations, in which Vohu Manah, Asha, Geueh Tashan and
the other heavenly lords take part, Vohn Manah the premier councilor, declares that
Zarathushtra is the only mortal who has heard the divine commands, and he is the one
person suited to be sent to the world as the spiritual and temporal lord who could
remove the grievances of Geush Urvan.” -
as quoted from Gatha 29 ; 8
Now this very passage from the Gatha, and not from the so-called
Later Avesta proves that the soul of Zoroaster being highest in. spiritual
unfoldment is given a certificate of his being the messenger of Ahura
Mazda by Vohu Manangha. Such a soul performed the miracles as
given in the other Avesta, and the Pahlavi texts have preserved a good
many of the marvels of Zarathushtra as in the Pahlavi Book of the
Dinkard. The writer of Zoroastrian Theology since he regards Zoroaster
as a commonsense man like himself does not seem to believe in the
achievement of miracles by Zoroaster. He says on the same p. 45 -
“We can see in this account (i.e. in the Gatha quoted above) an attempt to
convince the disbelievers and heretics of the true mission of the prophet.
The later texts resort to miracles of various sorts to fulfill the same purpose.
Those who have not yet come, in Gathic times, to any definite conclusion as to the
choice of their faith, and are still hesitating before embracing the new creed, are
shown how preparations were made in heaven for Zarathushtra.'s mission, and how
with divine sanction and direct approval of the godhead, the new prophet comes to
them for their good."
This is one of the worst exhibitions of the doubt and scepticism of
the writer of Zoroastrian Theology. In spite of two lucid passages from
the Gathas Ha 29 §§ 6, 8 declaring the unique position and divine
delegation of Zoroaster, the writer says that it 'was only an attempt to
convince the disbelievers and heretics of the true mission of the
prophet.' Here the writer doubts even the authorship of the Gathas, and
dreams such ideas to have been invented by some priests of later times
to convince the people anyhow. Certainly the miracles of Zoroaster
enumerated in the Pahlavi and other Avestan texts offer a prima facie
proof of the highest degree of spiritual development of Zoroaster. What
we term miracles are only phenomena based on the laws of nature, but
as long as we are ignorant of all the laws working on the ultra-physical
and spiritual planes of existence, we find such phenomena to be
impossible of achievement by ourselves and hence we call them by the
name of “miracles.” All the miracles that are to be met with in the
extant scriptures have their exquisite inner explanation which will be
given in print by the grace of God on some future occasion. We shall
here only bear in mind that much of what is said in the marvels of
Zoroaster in the Pahlavi Dinkard has been taken from the Avesta source
and the divine certificate referred to therein given to Zoroaster is simply
an explanation of the Gatha 29 § § 6,8.
We shall now go through all the references to Zoroaster in the book
of Zoroastrian Theology, and these as we shall notice prove the unique
position of the world-prophet. But in spite of all such references the
writer regards the prophet as a commonsense philosopher, for he is
unable to understand the height of Spiritual Unfoldment attained by
( i ). "Once, at least, even the prophet Zarathushtra is called a Yazata."
This is said on p. 97 from Yacna 3 § 21. If we understand the
meaning of the term “Yazata” i.e. one worthy of attunement for the sake
of Spiritual unfoldment, Zarathushtra who has well-nigh approached
Ahura Mazda deserves the title "Yazata" quite appropriately. The
Pahlavi Dinkard regards Zoroaster as equal to Amesha Spends in
spiritual potency, and the Ashish Vangh Yasht emphatically states that
Zoroaster achieved the annihilation of the Evil Spirit, which was not
achieved by all the Yazatas. Thus Yaena 3 § 21 furnishes a very nice
example of Zoroaster’s most exalted position in the universe.
(ii) Mazda asks his prophet to invoke the Amesha Spentas, even though he could
not behold them with his eyes. Zarathushtra follows Mazda's behests, and he is the
first man to invoke them, a spiritual predecessor having been the archangel Sraosha."
This is said from Vendidad 19 § 13 and Ashish-vangh Yasht § 18
on p. 88.
(iii) On pp. 195-196 he says -
“The Gathas and the Younger Avesta speak of the prophet's conferences with the
Ameshaspends, or archangels, and his communing with them."
(iv) On p. 22 it is stated that -
“Ormazd confers with them (i.e. the Ameshaspends) in regard to creating
Zaratusht on earth, and they help the godhead in this great work” –
as quoted from the Dinkard. This is also stated in Gatha 29 §§ 6, 8.
(v) When giving his own views on p. 366 the writer syas –
" Enthused by a zeal for the theory, they (i.e. the theosophists) go a step further
and allege that Zoroaster himself is an Amehaspand incarnate. This is contrary to the
spirit of Zoroastrianism. The sacred books speak of the prophet as the greatest of the
mortals, the most brilliant among men, even as the star Tishtar is among the infinite
stars, and as the noblest soul whose ideal life is a leaven of righteousness to humanity.
He is the highest and the greatest ideal of human perfection, the very embodiment of
piety. The Gathas give a distinctly visualized image of the personality of Zoroaster.
His life is surrounded by a nimbus of miracles in the later period, and most extravagant
legends are woven about his personality, but after all that the human language can sing
in his praise; he is simply a man and not an archangel incarnate. So was he during life,
and so he is after death. In no period of its history does Zoroastrianism apotheosize its
(vi) On p. 42 he says that -
“When Vohu Manah, the Grand Vizier of the heavenly kingdom approaches
Zarathushtra, and inquires of him what is his most ardent desire the prophet replies
that his inmost yearning is to think of righteousness through the devotional gifts of his
homage to fire -
as quoted from Gatha 43 § 9.
We see from these references that the writer is at a loss to
understand the most remarkable height of the Spiritual development of
Zoroaster who must be clearly distinguished from all mankind. He had
to come to this Khanirath Bami or this physical plane of existence with
a physical body of quite a different texture from that of mankind in
general, with a khoreh unsurpassed in purity and brilliancy, with a soul
the only one that had reached the highest point of unfoldment. Such a
noble personage cannot be described in the most unworthy expressions
of “simply a man” and "a commonsense thinker " etc.
In almost all the litanies or daily prayers Zarathushtra's name is
invoked side by side with that of Ahura Mazda, and no commonsense
practical thinker of a modern university erudition can ever be allotted
such honour of invocation. Holiness of the spirit implies intellectual
calibre par excellence as in the case of the greatest soul Zarathushtra,
but intellectual development of an ordinary commonsense thinker does
not necessarily imply purity and excellence of the soul within. Unless a
soul has proved itself worthy of the planes of Amesha Spands it cannot
enter into communication with the archangel Vohu Manah, second
only to Ahura Mazda. No commonsense practical thinker would
venture to say that he has communed with the archangel Vohu Mano.
The power of spiritual response, and the establishment of the channel
of spiritual communication with Sraosha, the greatest of an Yazatas
and the archangel Vohu Manah, can never be expected of ordinary
commonsense philosophers and thinkers. Such unrivalled spiritual
conference can be achieved only by a soul of the original superior
stamp like that of Zarathushtra, who as we have already seen belonged
to the “Nabanazdishtanam" class of souls that have nearly reached the
goal i.e. the plale of Ahura Mazda, the Garo Nmana. The so-called
later Avesta and some of the Pahlavi texts have not invented miracles
of their own, but they have simply preserved to us some of the rare
gems serving as best proof of the unique position of Zoroaster in the
universe. It cannot be called scholarship to reject all the ideas that are
incomprehensible to the student at a certain time, and to judge all the
subjects from the very limited horizon of the intellec390
ZOROASTER'S Spiritual Vision of Ahura Mazda.
tual mass collected from all the………logies of the West e.g. philology,
sociology, anthropology etc. which the writer of Zoroastrian
Theology is so very fond of.
(vii) On pp. 22, 23 we find certain ideas, which reveal to the
reader the highest spiritual potency of Zoroaster.
“The Lord (Ahura Mazda) is the fountain of holiness, and Zoroaster yearns
to bathe in the sanctifying waters of this fountain. He seeks to approach Ahura
Mazda with his mind thus illumined by wisdom and his heart ennobled by
holiness. Is the approach to the Father in heaven possible? Will the prophet's
passionate desire to reach him and be near him and around him and serve him
with all his mind and all his heart ever be fulfilled? Will his desire to see the
Heavenly Father in spirit; and converse with him ever be satisfied ?
……………He has not to wait long for the fulfillment of this ardent wish When
his spirit is ablaze with unquenchable devotion, when the ardent longing for
Ahura Mazda swallows up every other desire, Vohu Manah, the embodiment of
the Good Mind, the first in the spiritual hierarchy, comes to him, and the prophet
is assured of his success, for it is through Vohu Manah that he can realize his
wish, and through him he can approach the great Master. Vohu Manah, aided by
Sraosha, the divine messenger, reveals the sacred word of Mazda unto him, and
the prophet, who at last has had the spiritual vision of Ahura Mazda, says that he
has beheld him in his eye……………………….If earthly possessions fail him he
is rich in spiritual riches."
(viii) Similarly on p, 27 we find -
“Zarathushtra longs for the moment when, being enlightened and inspired,
he may behold Vohu Manah. The sage has not to wait for the realization of his
ardent desire, for Vohu Manah approaches him with divine knowledge, and asks
of him his heart's longings.”
(ix) On p. 38 again the exalted position of Zoroaster is described
as under -
“Zarathushtra, in exaltation of spirit, pours out his soul to Armaiti and
speaks of himself as the first and the most devout of men in veneration of her
(x) Then on p. 30 under the heading "Zarathushtra is singled out to
communicate the Law of Righteousness to humanity ", he saysZarathushtra
alone HEARD THE COMMANDMENTS OF Ahura Mazda. 391
“This divine Law (of Asha) is more immutable than the earth below and the
heavens above. Ahura Mazda has established it. It has flourished, in the world of
spirits from all eternity, and the Lord now seeks to implant it in the hearts of men.
For that reason Zoroaster is chosen as the best and the worthiest person to be the
law-giver to mankind. No one else besides him is considered worthy of this
mighty work. Vohu Manah declares that Zarathushtra alone has heard the divine
commandments and has undertaken to make them known to mankind. In pious
submission to the divine command, Zoroaster undertakes to establish the Law of
Righteousness on earth.”
All these views the writer has expressed on the authority of the
Gathas which according to his theory have been given by the prophet
himself. We learn from these words, which are very clear in themselves
that the soul of Zoroaster who saw Ahura Mazda, Vohu Manah,
Sraosha, Asha and Armaiti with his spiritual eye, enjoyed the unique
position, in the entire cosmos, of the prophet of prophets-Vakhshur-i-
Vakhshuran. All the above quoted expressions regarding the most
exalted dignity of the spirit of Zoroaster and his highest spiritual
unfoldment are given from the Gathas and not from the so-called Later
Avesta. The sense of veneration for such an un-paralleled soul of
Zoroaster is at the same time marred by the careless expression of "a
commonsense practical man" applied by the writer to this unique soul
in the whole cycle of evolution. Lack of consistency in such subjects of
profound importance is not a fault which can be easily overlooked by
the reader.
The subject of the position of Zoroaster is so vast in its extent that
it cannot be exhaustively treated here in one chapter. We merely try to
see superficially with very few references from the extant Avesta the
unsurpassed greatness of the soul of Zoroaster who brought the stream
of light of the "Mazdayacnian Daena" and the (“Zarathushtrian
Daena," which enable all the souls on the earth to put themselves on
the path of Final Unfoldment and Universal Attunement in the end.
Having seen therefore some of the ideas giving prima facie
evidence of the unique status magnus of Zoroaster in the entire
universe, we shall now try to know the intensity of spiritual
392 Zoroaster’s SUCCESSFUL campaign WITH Anghra Mainyu.
potency of that soul in his campaign with Anghra Mainyu, the evil
spirit. It should be borne in mind that when as described in Gatha 29 § 1
the pitch of materialistic wave of involution went to the intolerable
extreme point so as to overbalance the evolutionary wave or unfoldment
process as it were, this greatest soul Zoroaster is entrusted by the charter
of Ahura Mazda in consultation with Vohu Mano, and Asha and other
Archangels, with the capital work-of repelling Darkness and
propagating the spiritual Light on earth – of advancing Virtue and
weeding out Vice from the field of Spiritual Growth of the Soul, -of
transuiting the Asar-i-Tarikih or Dark Influences into Asar-i-Roshnih or
Influences of Light-of fighting the Druj with the heroic strength of
Asha-of annihilating the Daevas or vicious men and destructive thought
forces thereof, and opening up the field of advancement for Saoshyants
or spiritual benefactors-in short, of negativing the Anghra Mainyu and
of positiving the Spenta Mainyu. By virtue of the unparalleled greatness
of his soul, Vakhshur-i-Vakhshuran Zarathushtra Spitaman has very
triumphantly achieved the mighty task, and many references in the
extant meagre Avesta also testify to this most successful achievement in
the field of spiritual duel.
The following are some of the most amazing references to
Zoroaster's successful fight with Anghra Mainyu and the Daevas: -
1. “Yo paoiryo chakhrem urvaesatat daevatcha haotat mashyaatcha; yo paoiryo
staoish astvaithyao staota ashem naist daevo, fraorenat mazdayacno Zarathushtrish
vidaevo ahura-tkaesho."
-Fravardin Yasht § 89.
“Zarath1J.shtra was the first who overturned the circle of Daevas and similar
men ; he was the first who practiced the staota or colour-vibration of Ashem and
Naisimi-Daevo for the sake of the entire material existence, and sent forth the Mithraenergy
of attunement with Ahura and estrangement from Daeva in accordance with the
two Laws Mazdayacnian and Zarathushtrian."
Zoroaster BOMBARDS DAEVAS WITH THE Word of Ahuna Var. 393
2. “Yat hê tûm us-zayangha tûm erezvô zarathushtra nmânahe pourushaspahe vîdaêvô
ahura-tkaêshô. srûtô airyene vaêjahe tûm paoiryô zarathushtra ahunem vairîm
frasrâvayô vîberethwañtem âkhtûirîm aparem khraozdyehe frasrûiti. tûm zemar-gûrô
âkerenavô vîspe daêva zarathushtra ýôi para ahmât vîrô-raodha apatayen paiti âyazemâ,
ýô aojishtô ýô tañcishtô ýô thwakhshishtô ýô âsishtô ýô ashverethrajanstemo
abavat mainivåo dâmãn.”
-Major Hom Yasht or Yacna Ha IX §§ 12, 13.
"Thou was loftily born for Pourushaspa, O righteous Zarathushtra of the house of
Pourushaspa, estranged from Daeva and sided with Ahura. O Zarathushtra thou wast
the first who chanted most charmingly and with the best intonation the Ahuna Vairya
four times in the Iranvej, and thou O Zarathushtra made buried underground all the
Daevas who are now were moving about in the guise of men on this earth – thou who
art most powerful, strongest, most agile, most speedy, and most successfully triumphant
in the creation of both the spirits."
3. “Vaênemnem ahmat para daêva patayen vaênemnem mayåo frâvôit. Vaênemnem
apara karshayen jainish haca mashyâkaêibyô, âat tå snaogheñtish gerezânåo hazô
nivarezayen daêva. Aat tê aêvô ahunô vairyô ýim ashavanem zarathushtrem
frasrâvayat vîberethwañtem âkhtûirîm aparem khraozhdyehe frasrûiti zemara-guj
avazat vispe daeva ayecnya avahmya.”
-Jamyad Yasht §§ 80, 81,
The Daevas disappeared at the sight of Zarathushtra, vice vanished at his mere
sight, the genii withdrew from men at his sight and the daevas groaned and wailed
aloud and desisted from harassing. Moreover holy Zarathushtra chanted forth the One
word of Ahuna Var four times with intonation whereby all the Daevas unworthy of
attunement and unworthy of propitiation were forced underground.
4, Uiti dafiata ho yo dl£zdao angltro . ma'inyufSh pouru-11laMko-noit mam flispe
yazataongho an'tUente?11, jraorechinti, aut ?n011£ aeflo Zarathushtro anUBentem
apayeiti ;-jointi mam almna vair:ya UflCtvat s1LQ,ithifSha yath(/, . a8ma kato-masuo ;
'apayeiti mdm asha vahis7dc_ manayen ahe ?/atlta {tyo'klt81_U&tem; ".aeko me
hach'a angMo ze1nat varlglw kerenaoiti yo mam a,evo iamayeiti yo Spitomo
--Ashish Vangh Yasht § 20.
“The ill-informed Evil Spirit full of death of the spirit bawled out thus; - ‘ all the
Yazatas could not shatter me against my will, but only Zarathushtra has suppressed me
against my will; - he smites me with the word of Ahuna
394 Meaning OF Daevas; Species OF Daevas IN THE AVESTA.
Var, a weapon as enormous as a stone slab ; he melts me with the Best Word of Ashem
in the same way as he would melt down metal ; my disappearance from this earth does
benefit unto me. He who repels me is only Spitama Zarathushtra.”
From these passages we learn that the most heinous vibration
colour graphs of evil thoughts and words and practices were nullified
by Zoroaster who was able to work out the efficacy of the most
powerful charms of "Yatha Ahu Yairyo" and “Ashem Vohu” only on
account of the unsurpassed strength of Ashoi of that greatest soul. The
word "Daeva" in the Avesta has many meanings in the different
contexts. Generally the word implies all the unseen graphs and forms
created by the worst type of black magicians with the practice of their
“Agha-Mithra” or Evil Thought-force and "Agha-Manthra" or Evil
Charms. The persons who are addicted to these malpractices are also
called “Daevas." There are various classes of "Daevas" who are given
to the practice of various kinds of "Drujih." Those who make use of the
excretions of the body such as hair, nail, blood, flesh, etc., and practice
the Drujih-i-Hikhra for their malign objects of sorcery and witchcraft
by means of the evil magnetic currents of these dirty things, are known
as “Manzainyanam Daevanam” in the Avesta, for such "Daevas"
spread an influence which kills the "Vohu-Mithra." or Good Thought
energy of people around. Similarly we have in the Gosh Yasht other
types of Daevas such as the "Khyona," " Varedaka" “Darshinika" and
in the Slosh Yasht the "Varenya" Daevas. The process of these Daevas
of keeping themselves in touch with the most obnoxious "kehrpa" or
forms produced by means of the vibrations and colours of their most
powerful evil thoughts and evil charms, is known in the Avesta by the
name of "Daevayacna" or attunement with the Daevas.
The arduous task of shattering all these unseen formations and
graphs of Daevas was achieved by Zoroaster. The Manthra Spenta and
the Fshusho-Manthra, the two grades of Avesta Manthra charms were
powerful enough to cancel the Agha Manthra vibrations of the Daevas;
and allied with these two
MANTHRA-STAOTIC Manaeuvre of Zoroaster's Duel WITH DAEVAS. 395
exalted types of Manthra, the Mithra or thought-energy and Ashoi or
Holiness of the great soul Zoroaster, were an added force for the great
The fight of Zoroaster with the Daevas is not an allegorical story,
but a scientific fact based on the most abstruse laws of vibration,
colour; and magnetic electricity. The "Ushtana” or life-force or vitality
that sustained the unseen graphs of the Daevas, was shut out by the
Staotic effect of “Ashem Vohu" chanted by Zoroaster with a special
permutation of its words, and thereafter the lifeless shell or "kehrpa" of
Daevas was bombarded by the firy Staota of "Naisimi Daevo" and the
most powerful Staota of "Yatha Ahu Vairyo." When the "Gobar" or
unseen graph-formations of these Daevas were no longer sustained on
account of the exclusion of their Ushtana or vitality, they gave way
under the dire effect of the most powerful vibration-colours of the
Avesta Manthra chanted by Zoroaster and the lifeless "Hariri" or germs
of these unseen Drujih-formation were attracted into the earth by the
overpowering magnetic-force of Armaiti or the earth's magnetism, and
when the graphs were thus reduced to zero, the promulgators thereof
simultaneously disappeared. Thus the greatest achievement of
transmuting Asar-i-Tariklh into Asar-i-Roshnih, and the most trying
work of fighting successfully the Daevas, had been carried out only by
virtue of the Mithra, Manthra and Ashoi energy of the greatest soul
Zoroaster of the first rate Spiritual potency. "Manthra" is the metallic
weapon as it were, "Mithra" is the handle thereof, and "Ashoi" is the
energy requisite for wielding the mighty weapon of Mithra and
Manthra. As Zoroaster belonged to the "Nabanazdishtanam" class of
souls, and since he was "Ashem Ashavastemo" or holiest of the holy,
there could be no doubt about the invulnerable power of his Ashoi
employed against the Daevas in the great fight. In the same way if a
follower of Zoroastrianism desires to perceive the practical efficacy of
Avesta Manthra, he has but to live the life in accordance with the
canons of "Nish-nash-i-Druj" i.e. annihilation of Druj, in order to
accelerate the intensity of the strength of Ashoi within himself.
396. Haoma & otherKhastric Gun FOR OVERTHROWING EVIL SPIRIT.
One more reference to Zoroaster's fight with the Evil Spirit is
worth noticing -
5. “Paiti ahmâi avashat ýô Spitâmô Zarathushtrô, hâvanaca tashtacha
haomacha vacha mazdô-fraokhta – mana zaya asti vahishtem ana vacha
vanâni ana vacha apaýasâne ana zaya hukeratåongho, ai duzda angra
mainyô; dathat speñtô mainyush dathat zarûne akarane, fradathen ameshåo
speñta hukhshathra hudhånghô.”
- Vendidad XIX; § 19.
"Spitama Zarathushtra responded to Anghra Mainyu- ‘Havana or
metal tumbler for pounding Haoma, Tashta or metal plate for purifying
the Haoma, and Haoma and the Mazda-declared Word or Manthrathese
are my best weapons. I must smite thee and I must suppress thee
with that Word and with those well-prepared weapons, O thou illinformed
Anghra Mainyu-these weapons have been created by Spenta
Mainyuin the Boundless Energy and by the well created Amesha Spentas
of good power."
The above quoted paragraph, one of the best Avestic testimonies
to the efficacy of rituals, and especially of the Haoma ceremony based
on the subtle laws of electricity of which 81 kinds have been taught in
the chapter on "Khastra" by Zoroaster-explains that the Zoroastrian
rituals are based entirely on the grand laws of vibration, colour,
thought-energy, and magneto-electric currents, and that the same
Haoma ceremony which is the foundation of all Yacna ceremony, has
been employed by Zoroaster himself against the hideous vibrationcolour
graphs of the Evil Spirit and his dire Daevas. By virtue of the
Ashoi and Mithra power of that great Soul within him, Zoroaster was
able to notice the practical efficacy of the rituals allied with the Mazdataught
Avesta Manthric Vibrations against the Daevas, and the
“Yaozdathra" or purification-giving priests also can produce the same
practical efficacy in proportion to the intensity of Ashoi and Khoreh
power developed as a result of their life leading in strict accordance
with the 72 canons of "Ashahe Khao" i.e. Fountain Source of Asha
expounded in the Zoroastrian Law, and referred to in Yacna Ha. 10.
Zoroaster's Fight with Daevas - REAL AND PALPABLE-no myth. 397
Thus the soul that had already been "Uru-raost " or on the zenith of
Uru or Unfoldment, had not to fight any temptations within him, for
there could be no possibility of a rise of earthly temptations in a soul
like Zoroaster. Zoroaster's fight with the Daevas is the actual tangible
fight waged with the help of the vibrations, colours, and thought-energy,
and word energy and ritual-magnetic energy for the grand purpose of
shattering all the undesirable grossest graphs created by the most
abominable type of men termed Daevas under the guidance of the Evil
Spirit, the Prince of Darkness and Materialistic Wave. An ordinary
common-sense thinker could not have waged a successful fight of
vibrations, and the reader would be easily led to the convincing belief
from such descriptions of Zoroaster in the extant Avesta that Zoroaster
must be a unique soul far-surpassing all other souls in the universe.
Now the writer of Zoroastrian Theology has also referred to this
subject, viz., of the effect of Zoroaster's presence upon the Daevas.
(i) On pp. 158, 159 he says under the heading "Anghra Mainyu
grovels before Zarathushtra" -
“On the advent of Zurathushtra, as the true prophet, this soul of righteousness
stupefies him, because he sees in the earthly embodiment of Ahura Mazda's will his
eternal foe, who will by holy teaching and preaching threaten the overthrow of his
infernal empire of wickedness.
The Prince of Darkness, in tempting Zarathushtra, promises him the sovereignty
of the world, if he will only reject the faith of Mazda; but the prophet replies that he
will not renounce the excellent religion either for body or life. Angra Mainyu
determines to overthrow such faith on the part of the prophet to whom he is so opposed,
and resolves to wreak vengeance upon him. He clamours for the death of the sage, and
lets loose legions or demons to assail him. But the chosen of Ahura Mazda is found to
he on impregnable rock, not to be moved. The blessed one scatters his assailants in
flight. They rush howling and weeping to the regions of darkness, or hell. Defeated and
dismayed the Evil Spirit bewails that Zarathushtra alone has accomplished what all the
Yazatas together were unable to do, in other words, he is the only one who has baffled
the devil and his infernal crew. At the beginning of the creation the recital of Ahuna
Vairya by Mazda put Angra Mainyu to flight, and us a consequence the Evil Spirit
crouches in abject servility to Mazda's prophet, who has hurled him backward into the
darkest abyss.”
All these words are quoted on the authority of the Vendidad XIX.,
and Ashish Vangh and Jamyad Yashts by the writer who regards these
as Later or Younger Avesta, not given by the prophet himself. Hence the
writer is prone to believe all this talk about Zoroaster's fight with the
Daevas as allegorical or mythological or poetic expressions of some
later writers, for he is at a loss to understand, in the absence of the
knowledge of the great spiritual powers of Zoroaster and of the Laws of
Vibration, how Zoroaster should have routed the Daevas. Those who
regard all Avesta as neither pre-Zoroastrian nor post-Zoroastrian and
who care to acquire a scientific inner explanation of such passages
occurring in the Avesta will very easily see from the above-quoted
words of the writer that the writer of Zoroastrian Theology is utterly
ignorant of the essential central spirit of Zoroastrianism based on the
"Uru" or Unfoldment of the Soul in conformity with the laws of Staota
or Vibration-colours, and that as a result of sheer ignorance he takes
pride in calling 'Zoroaster' a commonsense practical man, philosopher or
(ii) On p. 162 we find other words of the writer to the
same effect -
" Of course the demons are terrified at the birth of Zoroaster, who routed them at
the outset. Not one of them, nor all together, could compass the hallowed sage's death;
they vanished overcome at his sight. In fact all those demons that roomed about on the
earth in human form sank beneath the earth at the appearance of the prophet."
This is quoted from the Fravardin Yasht § 89, Vendidad XIX,
Jamyad Yasht § 80, and Yacna Ha IX. Such ideas appear at first sight to
be merely poetical Imagery, but when the Avesta is deciphered, all the
meanings in such passages become scientifically intelligible to us. Such
passages at least testily to the great spiritual potentiality of the soul of
Zoroaster in pursuance of the highest summit of the mountain of
unfoldment that he has attained. The writer says on p. 129 -
WRITER'S DISBELIEF IN THE Miracles & Marvels of Zoroaster. 399
“Ahura Mazda has appointed Tishtrya as the lord of all other stars, even as he has
ordained Zarathushtra as the spiritual lord of all mankind.”
Certainly such passages prove that Zoroaster enjoyed the unique
position as a prophet in the entire universe. Such passages only explain
elaborately the Gathic ideas of "aevo sasnao gushata" and “uru-raost”
"hu-demem vakhedrahya," "fshuyantaecha" and "vastryaicha" etc.,
applied to Zoroaster. The students of philology have failed to
understand the Law of Gradations of souls working in nature, and in the
absence of a systematic knowledge of Zoroastrian esoteric teachings,
they are obliged to speculate upon all subjects in proportion to the
strength of their educated book-learned skill. As for example the writer
of Zoroastrian Theology says on p. 195 –
"Zoroaster is a historical personage in the Gathas. In the later Avesta he is
surrounded by an aureole, and becomes superhuman; but in the Pahlavi works his
personality is enshrouded by miracles, and he is transformed into a myth. The
fascination of marvels in religion is an unmistakable sign of the times. Christian
bishops, who, as we shall see in the further stage of our inquiry, carried on inveterate
disputes with the Zoroastrian clergy in Persia, based the claim of the greatness of their
own religion on miracles. Perhaps in consequence the life-story of Zoroaster, as told
by the writers of the Pahlavi period, is similarly stamped with the mark of the
miraculous. The Gathas and the Younger Avesta speak of the prophet's conferences
with the Ameshaspands, or archangels, and his communing with them. The Pahlavi
texts, as we shall see in the chapter on the Ameshaspands, state that they came to the
court of King Gushtasp as the envoys of Ormazd, to give proof of the divine calling of
the prophet."
This disbelief of the writer of Zoroastrian Theology in the miracles
and marvels of the prophet Zoroaster, is purely a result of the skeptic
and cynic attitude of the writer in conjunction with too much of
speculation. Although we have not got any continuous account of the
life of Zarathushtra in the extant Avesta texts, we must emphatically say
that the Pahlavi Dinkard has preserved much of the original Zoroastrian
lore not obtainable from the fragments of the extant Avesta. It is very
unjustifiable and unscholarly, on the part of the writer of Zoroastrian
Theology to say that the miracles described in the Pahlavi texts have
400 MIRACLES OF ZOROASTER – a Fact stated in more than One Nask.
invented by later writers. The Pahlavi Dinkard simply presents to us
many things in the 21 Nasks, and thus opens a vast field of investigation
into the grand principles of Zoroastrianism for devotional students of
Avesta and Pahlavi languages. When we refer to the summary of the
Nasks given ante in Chapter I. we find that the Varsht Mansar Nask or
Nask-i-Ahu contained an introductory chapter on the incidents of the
Prophet's birth and on his being appointed the Prophet by Ahuramazda;
and the Spend Nask or the Nask-i-Angheush was devoted to the
biography of Zoroaster, and spoke-of the earthly composition of the
material body with the Fravahar and the soul of the Prophet,-of the
nature of his spiritual birth in Heaven, and his material birth on earth,-of
his conference with the Deity at thirty years of age, and the occurrences
of seven such conferences in ten years. This same Spend Nask
described the many miracles and marvels attributed to the prophet,
which are collected in the Seventh Book of the Dinkard. The same
Nask gave the history of the Revelation, alluded to the conferring of the
Divine Wisdom upon Zarathushtra, his vision of the infernal region, the
propagation of Zoroaster's knowledge of the Divine Revelation to the
world, and his attraction of mankind to it. The Ratu-dad Haite Nask or
Nask-i-Chit contained details regarding the demonstration of the
assembly of the Ameshaspends.
Thus we are able to see that the fact of the miracles of Zoroaster is
never a myth, but originally a Zoroastrian fact mentioned in the Nasks.
Even the veteran Pahlavi scholar E. W. West testifies to this fact in the
S. B. E. Vol. XLVII. Introduction, which is devoted to the Marvels of
Zoroastrianism as stated in the seventh and fifth Books of the Pahlavi
Dinkard and in the selections of Zad-Sparam, Chap XII-XXIV. With
reference to the Pahlavi texts of the miracles of Zoroaster, West says –
"These three narratives appear to be the only
connected statements of the Zoroastrian legend that
remain extant in Pahlavi, and all three seem to be
chiefly derived from the Sasanian Pahlavi version of
West's Evidence - Avestan Source of Miracies in Pahlavi. 401
Spend Nask, with some probable additions from the
Chitradad Nask………………..That the original Pahlavi
version was translated from an Avesta text, though
many Pahlavi commentaries were intermingled,
appears certain. Apart from the numerous quotations
from revelation (deno), which may be safely assumed
to have had an Avesta original, there are many
passages interspersed with glosses, such as the
Pahlavi translators habitually used, as well as
numerous sentences beginning with a verb, an Avesta
peculiarity which generally disappears in an English
translation. Regarding the age of this Avesta text it
would be hazardous to speculate without further
information than we yet possess…………….Beyond
the frequent occurrence of the names of the chief
actors in the traditions, there are not many
references to the Zoroastrian legends in the extant
Avesta. This is owing to the fact that three fourths of
the Avesta texts including the Nasks specially devoted
to these legends have been lost. The chief references
to them that still survive in the Avesta are as follows:-
…………… So far as these references in the Avesta
extend, they agree with the Pahlavi versions of the
legends, and occasionally state some further particulars.
We may, therefore, safely conclude that these
Pahlavi versions present a fairly complete view of the
Zoroastrian legends current in Sasanian times."
The reader will be able to learn from these weighty words of the
veteran West that Dr. Dhalla is not a reliable scholar in the field of fair
fruits of Zoroastrian studies. All the so-called miracles of Zoroaster have
their proper, reasonable and scientific explanation for the unbiassed
student who has ears to hear. There is nothing regarding the miracles of
Zoroaster in the extant Zoroastrian Avesta scriptures and Pahlavi
writings, which is supernatural. These miracles must be looked upon as
402 RATIONALE OF Miracle of Feet of Asp-i-Siah i.e. BLACK HORSE.
physical, for they necessitate for their successful performance perfect
power of Ashoi or attunement with all the Laws of Asha together with
complete cognizance of the Laws of the Four Planes of the Universe-viz.,
the "Minoi" or the Spiritual, the "Jermani" or the Luminary, the
“Arvahi" or the ultra-physical, and the "Jesmani" or the physical,-of
which the former two termed "Hasti" are permanent and everlasting and
Constant, and the-latter two termed "Nisti" are transitory, evanascent and
Variable. One instance out of the many miracles will serve the reader in
good stead. Zoroaster took out all the four feet of the Asp-i-Siah or Black
Horse of King Vishtaspa, which were buried into the loins of the horse. It
is further said that Zoroaster took them out only by the chanting of some
Manthra or Avestic formula. This is regarded as a miracle, for this
phenomenon cannot be reasonably understood by the educated youth of
the present century in its literal sense. This miracle when explained in its
original light becomes a fact possible and certain of achievement to a
student of psychic science. When the subject of sixteen "Chakhra" or
psychic centres in the "Kehrpa" of the human constitution, is properly
understood by the student, he can very easily admit the truth of the fact
that Zoroaster developed the four “Chakhra" or psychic centres of King
Gushtasp, connected with the faculties of the brain in order to enable him
to see for himself the verities of the revelation or Daena-i-Zarathushtri.
This is a subject requiring a detailed and elaborate explanation, which
cannot be-given here in a book of review. We hope to see a book of all
the miracles of Zoroaster unveiled in this Light of Khshnoom in their
original interpretation by the grace of God in the near future. Meanwhile
such abstruse subjects must be patiently studied and investigated, and
cynical strictures and ridiculous remarks must be desisted from by the
students of bare Avesta philology.
What should he said of the inconsistency of the writer of Zoroastrian
Theology who does not recognize the unparalleled personality of
Zoroaster as above the human stage of the spiritual development, and who
cannot believe in the performance of miracles by Zoroaster whom the
writer regards as "an ordinary commonsense-man," when the same writer
says on p. 225-
(i) "In fact the Mazdayasnian religion itself is the innate intelligence of
Spena Menu"
on the authority of the Pahlavi Dinkard.
(ii) on p. 237 that
“the prophet Zartusht prayed to them i.e. (Izads) to grant him the power
of spiritual leadership.”
from the same Pahlavi Dinkard.
(iii) on p. -177 from the Avesta Yacna –
"Ahura Mazda proclaims to Zarathushtra, certain rules of
righteousness by the practice of which he could pass over the bridge to
(iv) on p. 138 on the authority of Aban Yasht that -
“The boon that Ahura Mazda seeks is that he may win over
Zarathushtra to think after his religion, to speak after his religion, and
to act after his religion.”
(v) on p. 147 he says from the Fravardin Yasht -
“Ahura Mazda advises Zarathushtra to invoke them (the
Ashaunam Fravashinam) whenever he finds himself in danger.”
If Zoroaster received the influx of the essential spirit of Spena
Mino, if he could put himself en rapport with the Yazads and Fravashis,
if he could attune himself and commune with Ahura Mazda as declared
in the aforesaid Avesta texts, no student of ordinary right sense and
devotional cast of spirit would hesitate to revere and adore him as the
unique and most exalted Soul in the Path of Unfoldment among all the
Souls yearning after the grand goal of spiritual unfoldment.
We have to omit many interesting subjects under this chapter such as
the question of the wife or wives and children of Zoroaster. Nowhere in
the Avesta do we find "Hvov" mentioned as the wife of Zoroaster, nor
the three names "Aesatvastra" "Urvatatnara," and "Hvare-chithra" as
the sons of Zoroaster, nor "Freni," "Thriti," “Pouruchisti" as the
daughters of Zoroaster. These seven names are found in connection
with Zarathushtra in
404 No wife & children OF ZOROASTER-BECAUSE OF Khaetvadatha.
the extant Avesta especially in the Fravardin Yasht and in the Gathas,
but they are not mentioned as the names of the wife and children of
Zoroaster. In pursuance of the usual mode of speculating upon the
study of Avesta philology, most of the Avesta students have given out
a conjectural surmise that Zoroaster had a wife and children of the
names above mentioned. In the Pahlavi Bundahishn Chap. XXXII.
S.B.E. Vol. V., we find an account of the wives and children of
Zoroaster, which seems to be absurd on the very face of it. The Gatha
Vahishta Ishti Ha 53 has been interpreted by the translationrememberers
as a matrimonial arrangement made by Zoroaster of his
daughter Pouruchisti. If the students of philology once cared to
remember that Avesta and Pahlavi writings have their own “Razeng"
or "Raniz" or mystic meanings to be deciphered only by the laws of
Staota and not by the rules of grammar, many absurdities and nonsensical
ideas created by the philological students would be shown to
contain deep philosophical meanings of Spiritual powers and forces.
The principle of “Khaetvadatha” which implies the spiritual
conjunction of "Sharif" or the Superior self with "Khasis" or the Inferior
self-the ideal union of Spiritual Masculinity with Spiritual
Femininity-which can be attained only by exceptionally unfolded souls
like the Magavans or Great Masters of Souls, when properly
understood, leads the patient student to the conviction that Zoroaster
who had already attained the goal of "Khaetvadatha" could not have
his "Half' or "Spiritual Counterpart" outside of him, and that therefore
he stood past the institution of marriage. The "Khaetvadatha"
principle, which necessitates married life for all the followers of
Zoroastrianism, emphatically lays down that Magavans are far above
the rule of marriage, and hence Zoroaster the greatest Magavan could
have no wife nor children. An the seven names above referred to and
regarded as the names of the wife and children of Zoroaster, are the
names of the exceptional high spiritual powers of the prophet by virtue
of which he rose to the most exalted stage of "Uru-raost" or "Highly
Evolved One."
We are here merely laying down some lines of study very
superficially for an ardent truth-seeking student of Zoroastrianism, and
this book being merely a review we cannot enter into the details of all
such profound subjects requiring much space. But from all these points
worthy of patient study and investigation we are able to see that the
speculative teachings of the philological students of the Avesta and
Pahlavi languages are not at all reliable, as they put before the public
very weird and absurd exhibitions of the grandest and most exalted
teachings of Zoroastrianism, invented merely out of their own
imagination and educated intellect. Scepticism and cynicism must now
give way to patient and serious study of all the extant Avesta Scriptures
and Pahlavi writings, and it is now the duty of all philological students
of Zoroastrianism to humbly seek the truth with the original
"Khshnoom" Key of the religion of Zoroaster in order to surely find the
The concluding words of the writer of Zoroastrian Theology on
pp., 369-371 must not be omitted, as they express the inner feeling of
the writer, no matter if he is led astray by the wrong method of study
and wrong line of argument in calling Zoroaster at times a
"commonsense philosopher." He says: -
"Zarathushtra, the chosen of Ahura Mazda, does not belong to any single period
and particular people, but to all ages and to all peoples. He is unchanging. His religion
it was that inspired the Iranian nation with the loftiest ideals when Iran was at the
zenith of her power. His ever optimistic teachings and the ever cheerful spirit of his
sublime doctrines save its remnants from falling into the slough of pessimism and
gloom, twelve centuries ago, when the Zoroastrian community stood appalled by the
national catastrophe that sounded the death knell of their empire……………..History
has recorded this one and unique pathetic instance of a great nation of millions being
reduced to a small community of a hundred thousand souls all told, still true to its
ancient faith. Everything that was nearest and dearest to them in the fatherland was
gone. Zarathushtra remained their only hope, and with his religion as the only
cherished heritage, the Parsi exiles sought an asylum in
India………………..Zoroastrian virtues have made the modern Parsis
great………………A religion that produces such results in the practical life of a
community well deserves the epithet 'excellent,' which the Mazda-worshipping
religion of Zarathushtra is given in the Confession of Faith…………..In the fret and
fever of modern civilization, which renders man exceedingly
406 WRITER'S TESTIMONY TO Ideal Greatness of Zoroaster & Daena.
sensitive to suffering, and lets loose on him the demons of restlessness and discontent,
Zarathushtra's religion is the best sedative for him to-day. So will it be in all social
unrests, economic crises, and religious upheavals of the future. Zarathushtra has been
the hope of the Parsis in the past. So is he now, and so will he be for ever."
By the words "chosen of Ahura Mazda" (“the only one known to
Ahura Mazda” according to Gatha 29) the writer implies the admission
of the unique position of Zarathushtra in the universe. He also admits
the universal greatness and universality of the Zoroastrian Religion or
the Universal Law of Unfoldment as taught by Zoroaster. The
characteristic greatness of the Daena-i-Zarathushtri is expressed by the
phrases ‘loftiest ideals’ and ‘sublime doctrines.’ If the whole passage
quoted above is read with careful attention, it is noticed that the writer
admits the fact of the efficacy of Ashoi-tarikats or canons of holiness
observed in ‘the practical life of the community.’ We do not understand
how much of the extant Avesta scriptures is included by the writer in
the phrase 'Zarathushtra's religion' used by him. Certainly according to
his imaginary belief 'Zarathushtra's religion' includes nothing more than
the Five Gathas or perhaps one or two Has out of the Five Gathas.
'Zarathushtra can be the hope of the Parsis' at all times, only if the
enlightened Parsi community of today were to revere all the extant
Avesta Scriptures as veritable relics of the 21 Nasks of Zoroaster.
Hence with sincere devotion allied with real knowledge of all the
scientific laws of nature expounded in the entire Law of Zarathushtra, a
few glimpses of which are traceable even in the meagre extant Avesta
texts, if the educated Parsis of today were to avail themselves of a
practical observance of the most important and inevitable rules of Ashoi
in every walk of their daily life, only in that case can it be said with
emphasis that 'Zarathushtra is the hope of the Parsis' under the various
vicissitudes of their life oil earth.
In fine in order to understand the unique position of Zarathushtra
and the great potency of his soul for helping all the souls on the earth
onward in the path of "Uru" or Spiritual Unfoldment, we shall
remember the following most rememberable words from the Hoshbam
prayer –
ZOROASTER-Universal Leader of Spiritual Adepts-YACNA 71. 407
“Hakhshya azem-chit yo Zarathushtro frateman nmananamcha, visamcha,
zantunamcha, dakhyunamcha, anghao daenayao anumatayaecha, anukhtakaecha,
anvarshtayecha, ya Ahuirish Zarathushtrish.
Yatha no aongham Shato-manao, Vahishto-urvano, Khathravaitish-tanvo hento
vahishto anghush, akaoschoit Ahuire Mazda jasentam.
Asha-vahishta Asha-sraeshta, daresama thaw, pairi-thwa jamyama, hamem thaw
“ I myself who am Zarathushtra shall lead the foremost ones of the Nman, Vis,
Zantu and Dakhya, along the line of the Thought, Word and Practice of this Law which
belongs to Zarathushtra of Ahura.
Hence these of ours, i.e. the minds having become ecstatic, the souls beatified
and the bodies aura-ful, having cognized the Best Existence, they shall approach Mazda,
O Thou of Ahura;
With the Best Holiness, with the most excellent Holiness, must we see Thee, must
we approach Thee, must we associate with Thee !”
These words require a good deal of comments for they explicitly
determine the immutable exalted and unique position of the prophet of
prophets Zoroaster. The terms Nman, Vis, Zantu and Dakhyu, literally
meaning house, street, province, and country, are technical terms
pointing out certain stages in the unseen planes of the universe, and
these terms are found specially in connection with the four Gahs or
periods of the day viz, Ushahin, Havan, Rapithwin, and Uziyirin. Again
the word "Zarathushtra" in this passage and in the Gathas refers either to
the prophet himself or to the "Gatha" i.e. the Spiritual Lord of the same
name in the Jirmani plane, and it is a very interesting study based on the
knowledge of the Laws of Staota, which enables the student to make out
the original meaning of a certain Avesta word in any context.
Hence to conclude, we shall remember the underlying spirit of this
Avesta passage -viz., that Zoroaster is the Leader par excellence of
Spiritual Unfoldment, and enjoys the unique position as such only by
virtue of the greatness of his soul. This grand idea of the unique position
of the world-prophet may be summed up in the following address as if
from any devout admirer of the Law of Zarathushtra: -
Hail ! O Bringer of Light and Preceptor of Ashoi ! O Holy Spitama
Zarathushtra ! You who informed us of the Great Law
of Infoldment of the Spirit into Matter (Daen-i-Mazdayacni) and who
taught us the Wonderful Law of Unfoldment of the Spirit from Matter
(Daen-i-Zarthushtri) ; you who are ever with the one thought of doing
the Will of Ahuramazda, the one sublime thought of showing the Path
of Ashoi-the way of Unfoldment to the Blessed Souls throughout all the
planes (Minoi, Jirmani, Arvahi and Jismani) of the creation of
Ahuramazda; you who taught us the three Grand Laws of achieving
Unfoldment of the Urvan-the Law of Ashoi (Purity Ideal – in all its
perfection-physical, mental, moral and spiritual), the Law of Khoreh
(the Aura or subtle emanations), the Law of Keshash or Paitioget
(obligations and adjustments with everything and invisible force in the
universe); you who gave us Manthra (the well thought word-the
Avesta) as the one most powerful Agency whereby to achieve Ravan-
Bokhtagih ; you who explained us the Essential, Fundamental Law of
Staota (vibration and colour) under-lying the entire visible and invisible
creation-the Majestic Law of Staota on which you based the Yatha Ahu
Vairyo modifying the Yatha Ahu Vairyo into the Gathas, Vendidad,
Yizashn, etc., covering twenty-one Nasks instilling into all these
Staotic Manthras (Vibrationary words) your highest Powers of Humata,
Ashoi and Khoreh, so that your blessed chanters of the Manthra may be
also filled with Khshnoom of the Gathas (the Ecstatic Beatitude); you
who taught us by means of these Manthras that are based on the Law of
Staota to be in tune, in unison, en rapport, with Sraosha, the Ameshaspends
and Ahura Mazda by establishing a channel of holiest and highly
accelerated vibrations by means of Staotic Manthras of the Avesta; you
who gave us the best agency-the most efficient instrument the Atash-i-
Behram which works as a transmitter of thermo-magno-electrovibratory
forces of all the Holy rituals to the Supra-physical planes, and
which brings down in response to the similar vibratory forces of one's
Avesta prayers the innumerable efficient forces of Yazads and other
Ministers of Grace; you who taught us all the grand rituals of
Nirangdin, Vendidad, Yazashna, Baj, Afringan, Bareshnum, Dokhma-
Nashin, etc. – all these founded on the grand Laws of "Uru" or
Unfoldment of the Urvan, viz., the subtle laws of thermo-magnoelectro-
THE Unique Delegate of Ahura Mazda IS Zarathushtra. 409
forces in the universe-you who taught us all these and many things more
ad infinitum, how much are we indebted to you !!!
0 Beloved, Holy, Spitama Zarathushtra ! How shall we show our
sense of obligation to you who gave us the Science of Sciences,
Farhanghan Farhang, Manthra Spenta – the knowledge of knowledges,
Manthra Spenta !!! You who possessed knowledge of all the planes of
the universe; you who have the highest Intelligence Asn-i-Vir; you who
are gone to the advanced stage of souls of the highest Naba-
Nazdishtanam Fravashinam class of the four classes of souls-Ashonam,
Ashaunam, Poiryo Tkaeshanam and Naba-Nazdishtanam; you who are
"Ururaost Asto" gone to the highest stage of a prophet; you whom
Ahura Mazda gave "Hudemem Vakhedrahya" "the certificate of
communicating the Word;" you who "alone heard His canons" (Aevo
sasnao Gushata); you who are "Mazdo Frasasta" "taught by Mazda;"
you who are " Hatam Hudastemen, Raevastemem,
Kharenanghuastemem . . . " "the Most knower of Good, the Most Wise
Professor of Rae or brilliant lustre of spiritual knowledge, the most
Possessor of Glorious Light among all the souls that are passing from
Infoldment to Unfoldment"; -you whose Soul is beyond comparison
among the mortals; you who are "superior to Yazads and equal to
Ameshaspends ;" -we turn with hands and eyes uplifted towards you,
the Ratu, the Representative, the Viceroy of Ahura Mazda! Ashem
We shall take up in this chapter a number of subjects, which
require a summary treatment. The writer of Zoroastrian Theology has
referred to various subjects here and there in passing, which a
thoughtful reader may question the correctness of.
(A) Reform movement and Progress.
The writer seems to be very fond of the so-called “reformers” or a
handful of persons who suggest all sorts of iconoclastic changes in the
observance of religious canons, as a result of their own speculation upon
the imperfect translations of the extant Avesta read by them. The writer
uses such phrases as –
“The reformers now argued” on p.344.
“The reformers pointed out” ibid.
“The reformers further said” on p. 345.
“The reformers urged” on p. 346.
“The new school said” ibid.
“The reformers took up the question” on p. 348.
“The new school assailed” on p. 349.
The peculiar use of the term "reformers" by the writer of
Zoroastrian Theology, puts the reader into a blaze of amazement. We
must remember that every sort of reckless change made in anything does
not necessarily imply ‘reform’ or ‘progress’. Very often such
thoughtless changes result in deterioration and retardation in accordance
with the adage – “Trying to better oft we mar what's best.” This adage
has been proved to be true in the case of the too much boasted reform in
the profession of Zoroastrian religion. All the subjects which are treated
in the ten chapters ante, and many more besides, constitute the hobbies
of the so-called Parsi reformers numbering about a hundred in the whole
community of a hundred thousand ; e. g. –
(i) Disbelief in the existence of the 21 Nasks of Zoroaster.
(ii) Advocacy of Jud-dinism or proselytism and marriage with the
(iii) Ridicule of Zoroastrian Rituals.
(iv) Importance attached to the imaginary views of foreign writers as if
they taught the original Zoroastrian teachings.
(v) Fondness for animal-killing in the name of Zoroastrian religion
and rites.
(vi) Ridicule of the efficacy of the Avesta Manthra recital for prayers,
and advocacy of prayers in Gujarati or English.
(vii) Disbelief in the existence of "Magava" or Ideal Holy Priest.
(viii) Imaginary fad of there being more than one writer of the Original
Avesta Manthra.
(ix) Cynical view of the Zoroastrian mandate of seclusion of women in
(x) Unworthy opinion of the position of Zoroaster as prophet in the
universe, and perverse disbelief in his performance of miracles -
And many more are boastfully included in the so-called Reformmovement
floated by persons who have become non-Zoroastrians in
belief and practice.
In fact the present situation of the Parsees with reference to their
religion is badly in need of genuine reformers i.e. persons who with
the unfoldment of their spiritual powers by virtue of their Ashoi, are
able to reinstate the original teachings and practices of Zoroastrianism
that are lost to us. We are really in need of religious reformers and
leaders like Arda Viraf and Adarbad Mahrespand. The writer of
Zoroastrian Theology has also referred to these-saintly reformers on
pp. 192, 193 as under -
412 Arda Viraf & Adarbad Marespand – CONSTRUCTIVE REFORMERS.
“The revival of Zoroastrianism continues - with unabating zeal. The great work
inaugurated by the first of the royal House of Sasan was zealously continued by his
descendants and notably by Shahper II, who brought the work to completion with the
help of his illustrious Dastur and premier Adarbad Mahraspand. Mani's heresy was at
its height during this period, and Adarbad strove hard to restore the faith of his people
that was undermined by the misguided leader's heretical teachings. In order to prove
the marvels of the faith, Adarbad is reported to have submitted himself to the ordeal of
the molten metal and to have come out unscathed …………………
Another source states that still further steps were taken to put the truth of the
religion to the test. Several pious mobads were convoked to attend at the temple of the
fire Froba, and there to consider the momentous question of deputing one of their
number to visit in a vision the spiritual world and thus to bring back from the angels
themselves a first-hand knowledge of matters spiritual for the complete restoration of
the religion. Seven holy men were first elected from the assembly. Out of this number
Arda Viraf was selected as the most righteous and saintly. After preliminary
ceremonies this holy man entered into a trance for seven days and nights, during
which he was transported in spirit to the other world. His soul ascended into the realm
of heaven, traversed the spiritual regions, and after beholding paradise visited likewise
the inferno. Viraf described the experience of his visions and thus contributed to
rehabilitating the faith of the people in their historic religion.”
Indeed we are greatly in need of an Arda Viraf and an Adarbad
Mahrespand in this age of boasted intellectual progress and rationalism
in order to bring round the so-called heretical Parsi reformers to their
proper senses. Verily we want a religious teacher and preacher longed
for in the Gatha 43 § 3 and the Yacna Ha 62 or Atash Nyaesh, and
Gatha 44 § 16.
“Ye nao erezush savangho patho sishoit,
Ahya angheush astvato mananghascha
Haithyeng a-stish yeng a shaeti Ahuro,
Aredro, thwawans, huzentushe, spento, Mazda.”
“A person who might teach us about the Right Paths of Spiritual-Benefit of this
corporeal existence and that mental spiritual existence where Ahura resides – a person
who is thy invoker, of thy flank, of good wisdom and beneficent, O Mazda."
Gatha 43 § 3.
AVESTIC YEARNINGS FOR Spiritual Leaders & Holy Guides. 413
“Dayao me atarsh puthra Ahurahe Mazdao,
Ya me-anghat afrasaonghao nuremcha
Yavaechataite vahishiem ahum ashaonam raochanghem vispo-khathrem.”
"O Ahurahe Mazdao Puthra Fire, grant unto me such as would be for me now
and for ever a teacher of the Best Existence of the Holy, shining and all-illumined."
- Yacna Ha 62 or Atash Nyaesh.
“Chithra moi dam ahumbish ratum chazdi,”
“Point out to me an original wise guide for both the existences.”
-Gatha 44 § 16.
We see in these Avestic yearnings that the world is in need of
spiritual leaders and holy guides, and the Zoroastrian of to-day does not
require a lawyer-like twister of facts in order to preach one's own
invented idols-of-the-mind. We want in this age of intellectual
deviation and spiritual darkness such. Zoroastrian reformers as are
described in the afore-quoted three passages.
The writer himself on p. 62 says emphatically, that -
( i ) “Progress is the Zoroastrian watchword. Man's birth is an ascent to the
state of final perfection…………………The establishment of the
Kingdom of Righteousness is the one universal ideal, which knows no
change. Ahura Mazda will bring about the renovation of the world in
accordance with his divine will. The whole universe moves towards
the realization of this state of perfection, and humanity evolves
towards this ideal. The righteous at all times help to bring this great
event nearer by their deeds, even though the onward march may be
beset with obstacles, and progress at times may be retarded, yet it can
never be wholly arrested…………..If progress and evolution seem to
be slow, the faithful need not despair.”
In a similar strain the writer adds on p. 181. -
(ii) “Zoroaster in his religion has postulated a renovation of the universe, a
new dispensation in which the world will become perfect at the last
day……………..The world progresses towards perfection. Iniquity and
wrong are to be ultimately supplanted by equity and right.”
Similarly on p. 284 we meet with the following words. -
(iii.) “The work of regenerating the world, which was commenced by
Gayomard, the first man, and was looked forward to from the time of the
Gathas, will be brought to completion And perfection by Soshyos, the
last saviour……………..Gayomard, Jamshid, Zaratusht and all pious
men who have worked for the betterment of the universe are among
those that help in bringing about the final renovation. The great work
proceeds with greater or lesser success according as mankind are
stronger or weaker in the practice of righteousness at various periods.”
Lastly we shall put one more reference from p. 150. -
(iv.) “Each age has its righteous persons by the million, who further the
human progress. The Fravashis of such only are commemorated.”
All these four references lead one to the convincing conclusion
that the writer of Zoroastrian Theology understands the meaning of
genuine reform or progress. This idea of human progress or genuine
reform is corroborated from the Gathas 51 § 19-48 § 8-50 § 5-46 § 3-
48 § 13-50 § 7-46 § 7-34 § 13 as well as from the other Avesta. We
cannot quote here all these Avestan passages which prove that reform
or progress must needs imply unfoldment of the soul and development
of the spiritual potencies within ourselves.
The writer's grievous inconsistency is to be noticed when we read
pp. 343-351 of his book under the chapter entitled “The Reform
Movement.” In this chapter the writer concurs in the iconoclastic
destructive method of a handful of so-called reformers who feel a
natural disgust for the observance of all the Ashoi-Tarikats ordered in
the Zoroastrian Scriptures. The followers of
Zoroastrianism do require progress and reform for the upliftment of
their spiritual status, and the exaltation of the position of their soul.
The ideas of progress and reform preached in the Gathas and other
Avesta do not in the least imply the shabby nonsensical and absurd
innovations of speculative views and beliefs of some persons who
have become in reality unbelievers regarding the original tenets of
Zoroastrianism. Advocacy of smoking, unscrupulous falsehood,
looseness of morality, moving about bare-headed or without proper
covering for the head, neglect of seclusion of menstruous women,
cruelty to animals for food, luxurious enjoyment of wine and woman
etc., etc., are a few of the very nasty points which the so-called
reformers strive to carry. The sincere faith-abiding members of the
Parsee community constantly join their hands in prayer to Ahura
Mazda to weed out such a reform movement, and to transmute the
ideas of their progenitors from those of Asar-i-Tarikih into Asar-i-
Roshnih. Both in Avesta and Pahlavi we find the re-iterated idea of
renovation or freshening of the Soul (Av. Frasha-Kereti ; Pahl. Frashogard)
individual as well as collective, and the faithful Zoroastrian has
to move onward towards this golden prize of Frasha-Kereti or Spiritual
Juvenascence. This is real reform and proper progress, and the burning
of the heart for the sake of Spiritual Development is the one need,
which the intrinsic reform movement ought to supply.
"Man has an inborn impulse that prompts him to strive after the divine."
-is a veritable truth averred by the writer on p. 223, and these
words of his own ought to have taught him the meaning of progress or
reform movement.
(B) Zoroastrian Religion, - Is it philosophy, theology, or occultism?
We find some queer expressions in the book of Zoroastrian
Theology, putting the reader into some confusion as to whether
Zoroastrianism is philosophical, theological or esoteric.
(i) On p. 356 he says under the heading “Investing Zoroastrianism
with a philosophical garb” –
416 GATHIC “Khshnoom” – THE ORIGINAL Zoroastrian Esotericism.
“The religious system of Zoroaster is theological rather than philosophical. This
theological aspect of their faith does not satisfy the Parsi theosophists. They attempt to
convert their faith into religious metaphysics with the object of giving it a rational
aspect. They aim at an adjustment of the fundamental Zoroastrian concepts according
to the standard philosophy of their society, which is an eclectic system drawing its
materials mostly from Hinduism and Buddhism, and which is subversive of the basic
principles of Zoroastrianism. The different phi1osophical principles and theological
doctrines of various religions are the distinguishing features by which one religion is
marked out as separate from another. Would this philosophical garb, then, made of
non-Zoroastrian materials, add anything to the inherent excellence of
Certainly not. It must be admitted that Zoroastrianism has its own
esoteric line peculiar to itself, known in the Gathas by the Avestic name
“Khshnoom”. Modern Theosophy which is an eclectic system no doubt
and which moreover is particularly esoteric Hinduism and Buddhism
cannot throw any real light on the deep teachings of Avesta, which
requires their own key of "Khahnoom." The contentions of the writer in
the above-mentioned paragraph require little contradiction, but we must
say emphatically that Zoroastrianism is both theological and philosophical
with a very marked individual philosophical system of its own
native birth and origin i.e. of purely Avestic and Zoroastrian origin. The
writer is badly mistaken when he denies that Zoroastrianism has any
philosophical aspect of its own. Zoroastrianism underlies a complete
philosophical compass of its own which when brought out throws the
student into deep joy and great wonder. We have by this time been able
to see from the former pages of this book that Zoroastrianism is
characterized by a consistent and symphonious philosophy of its own
which alone discloses the greatness and excellence of this most ancient
and unique Law of Zarathushtra.
(ii) On p. 16 he distinguishes, religion from philosophy, thus-
"It is not a sound system of philosophy that attaches all possible interest to the
next world alone, deriding this, and remaining out of touch with real
life………..Religion should foster civic virtues in man. In addition to making
mankind holy and righteous, religion should aim at making mankind
Zoroastrianism COMPRISES OCCULT & ESOTERIC Philosophy. 417
patriotic and heroic. Zoroaster, the realist, the practical commonsense thinker, does not
encourage exaggerated un-worldliness. Earthly life has a greater value and a deeper
significance than the ascetic would acknowledge or believe……………….Spiritual
virility and not spiritual inactivity is the ideal....….Progress and civilization become,
thus, a duty for the followers of the ancient Iranian creed. Zoroastrianism is active
practical, and militant."
(iii.) A similar distinction is made on pp. 357, 358 between
religion and philosophy. –
“Philosophy attempts to give a rational solution, based on human observation and
experimentation, of various problems, which religion claims to solve on the authority of
prophetic revelation. This common object of the two makes philosophy and religion
most closely interrelated to each other. Philosophy by itself can never be an allsufficient
source of satisfying the needs of man. The divorce of religion from the daily
life of man creates a blank in the human mind, and philosophy cannot fill
it………………Religion has fixed canons, binding traditions. Its tendency is to put a
lasting stamp on the doctrines for all times. It rests upon the teachings of a prophet, and
nourishes them as an unchangeable heritage. Philosophy, on the other hand, progresses
with the times, and ever encourages fresh inquiry. It always revolts from every kind of
dogmatic teaching……………Hence there is no system of philosophy which can claim
absolute truth…………………Religion teaches to believe, philosophy teaches to
doubt………………Religion and philosophy did not proceed hand in hand in
Iran…………….Religion should be such that its ideals can be applied to our workaday
world. Its teachings should be applicable to the exigencies of daily life. It should find
expression in all the small and great acts of man's life. Its influence on the life of the individual
should not be casual and spasmodic, but constant. It should be a living and a
working factor, not a mere accident in life.”
It is not at all clear from these words what the writer wants to
convey about the Zoroastrian philosophy which as we have already seen
is implied in the Zoroastrian religion, Just as it is true that there can be
no Zoroastrian religion without Zoroastrian rituals or without
Zoroastrian canons of Ashoi, in the same way is it true to say that there
can be no Zoroastrian religion without Zoroastrian philosophy of its
own. Whether it is termed occultism, esotericism or abstruse teaching or
metaphysical explanation or philosophy – whatever name we call it byit
is there as a concomitant of Zoroastrianism. The Gathic terms
and "Guzera Senghaongho" i.e. “Mysteries” and "Mystic Doctrines” are
quite sufficient to point out that Zoroastrianism constitutes very deep
philosophy of its own which has not been divulged by the school of
philology at any time. Zoroastrianism is the most practical Law since it is
expressly militant, for the follower of Zoroastrian Law has to fight the Druj
out every moment of his life. Spiritual activity is the Zoroastrian
watchword, for life in this world is only as a wicket gate to the spiritual life
and progress in the unseen world. A Zoroastrian has to do all the duties of
this world which naturally devolve upon him by the Law of Action and
Reaction (Av. Paitioget), but at the same time while carrying out all his
worldly obligations be has to remember the final destination of his soul in
the next world by the Pazend Words recited in every Nyaesh and Yasht
“Man ano avayad shudan” i.e, “I have to go there.”
In the Chapter on " Life after Death" on p. 54 the writer himself
says -
"The soul exists for the short span of its life on earth in the tenement of the body.
When the material frame crumbles into dust it flees heavenward. The bodily death does
not mean the death of the soul, for that is immortal. Man should therefore bethink
himself to prepare for the journey to the next world."
Hence it is seen that the physical body serves as an instrument for
the development of the soul, and that life in this world is but a means to
an end-the beatific existence in the unseen realms, and the life in this
world must every moment be guided by the awe of the life elysian.
When he speaks of the distinction between philosophy and
religion, the writer may have in mind some branches of Western
philosophy, but we must emphatically say in the light of "Khshnoom"
that the Zoroastrian system of philosophy as taught in the 21 Nasks of
Zoroaster has a right claim to absolute truth. It is awfully erroneous on
the part of the writer to say that in Iran religion and philosophy did not
run hand in hand. When the Zoroastrian religion was deprived of its
muscles and viscera i.e., of "Razeng" or Zoroastrian philosophy and
“Yacna" or Zoroastrian rituals, by the school of comparative philology,
“Ashoi" = CENTRE; "Razeng” = RADIUS; "Yacna" = CIRCUMFERENCE.
barebone skeleton was left to scare the Parsee community at every glance
at the dismal relic. Thus we see that empty vessels sound most, and men
who know practically nothing of Zoroastrian religion, rituals, or
philosophy dare to write verbose dissertations on these important subjects
only with the result of making a mess of matters.
(iv) Then on p. 31 he says -
“Righteousness is the will of Ahura Mazda; it is the rule of man's duty, and to be
righteous is synonymous with being religious………………..Good thoughts, good
words, and good deeds - humata, hukhta hvarshta - form the ethical foundation upon
which righteousness rests and the basis upon which the entire structure of the system of
the Mazdayacnian philosophy is reared.”
We have already seen in Chapter IX that Ashoi is the fulcrum of
the Lever of "Uru" or Spiritual Upliftment, and the above-quoted words
are put by the writer under the heading "Righteousness is the pivot
around which the ethics of Zarathushtra evolve." We learn therefore that
the Mazdayacnian philosophy is there and merged into the Zoroastrian
Religion itself, which is based on the 72 cardinal points of Ashoi or
Practical Piety and Righteousness. The Zoroastrian philosophy is never
insipid, for it is always found in concatenation with the canons of
Holiness for observance in everyday life taught in the Avesta.
(v) A queer distinction between religion and theology is to be noticed
on p. 197 –
“The Sasanian Church triumphed when she stood for the spirit of the religion of
Mazda; but she failed when she descended to rigid formalism, stifled independent
inquiry, stigmatized honest doubt as Ahrimanian, and sought to overrule original
thinking by dogmatic assertions. Religion defeats its own ends when it degenerates into
dogmatic theology.”
We do not understand what the writer gives us to understand by the
words “spirit of the religion of Mazda.” At least we presume that he does
not mean thereby one Gatha or all the Gathas of Zoroaster. The so-called
"rigid formalism" is really speaking the drill for the practice of Ashoi
discipline in order to
fight the Druj out incessantly. We have already noticed the “independent
inquiry” (!) and “original thinking” (!) of the writer himself throughout
the book, which are summed up in speculation, cynicism, ridicule,
agnosticism, sarcasm, and what not. Zoroastrian religion when mutilated
by the exertions of the philologist is deprived of its natural shape and
body, and under such tattered condition of torture it seems to have
degenerated into dogmatic theology. When however the student is guided
by the idea of the existence of 21 Nasks of Zoroaster, he reverently
approaches the meagre remnant extant Avesta scriptures and tries to make
out some clues to the whole, harmonious and consistent philosophy
underlying the deep truths wrongly termed ‘dogmatic theology’(!)
In order to conclude it must be clearly borne in mind that the Law of
Zarathushtra implies therein everything viz., religion, philosophy,
theology, occultism, mysticism, esotericism etc, etc., and in the absence of
some glimpses of the entire system of Zoroastrian Law as propounded in
the 21 Nasks it is quite useless and needless to attempt at calling it one
thing or another. When it is remembered that Zoroastrianism is the
revealed religion as evinced from the Gathic "Darshtoishcha Hemparstoishcha
i.e. “interview and conference” with Ahura Mazda, achieved
by Zarathushtra, or from the Avestic "Mazda-frasansta” instructed by
Mazda,” “Vispaeshu frashnaeshu, vispaeshu hanjamanaeshu” i.e. “in all
the consultations and in all the interviews” of Zoroaster with Ahura
Mazda, - one can readily make out the absurdity of speaking of
Zoroastrianism as being a religion void of philosophy or esoteric meaning
underlying it.
It is very ridiculous to speak otherwise of the Universal Law of
Nature taught by Zoroaster which teaches about –
1. The Four "Alam" or Planes of the Universe viz. "Minoi,"
"Jermani," "Arvahi," “Jesmani” - the Spiritual, the Luminary,
the Ultra-physical and the Physical.
2. The “Zravan Akarna” i.e. “the Boundless Energy," of “Athro
Ahurahe Mazdao Puthra," the Fire-energy on the ninth heaven
of the Minoi Alam.
Glorious Stages Unseen REVEALED IN ZOROASTRIANISM. 421
3. The “Zravan Dregho-Khadata” i.e. "the Self-asserting Long-enduring
Energy," of Atash-Berezo-savangh" the Fire-energy on the eighth heaven
of the Minoi Alam.
4. The “Thwasha Khadata” i.e. the “Self-asserting firmament-energy”
resulting from the revolution of the Seven Heavens of the Jermani Alam.
5. The Seven "Jirms" or Luminaries on the heavens or the Jirmani Alam
"Kaevan" i.e. Saturn with the Fire-energy "Atar Khordad"
of the First Order.
“Barjis" i.e. Jupiter with the Fire-energy "Atar-Froba"
par excellence.
"Hasam" i.e. Mars with the Fire-energy "Atar-Gushasp"
of the First Order.
“Shams” i.e. Sun with the Fire-energy "Atar-Burzin-Meher"
of the First Order.
"Nahid" i.e. Venus with the Fire-energy “Atar-Gushasp”
of the Second Order.
"Tarad" i.e. Mercury with the Fire-energy “Atar-Khordad"
of the Second Order.
“Dae” i.e. Moon with the Fire-energy "Atar-Burzin
Meher" of the Second Order.
6. The "Akla" or Conscious Intelligences and “Urvan" or Souls on each of
the Nine Heavens, viz. –
Heaven Akla Urvan
9 Vohu Mana or Akla Aval Farrokh Fravardin
8 Ardibehesht & Khurdad Ardibehesht & Khurdad
(in co-operation). (in co-operation).
7 Aban Tir
6 Ahura Mazda Amerdad
5 Behram Shehrivar
4 Khurshid Meher
3 Tir Aban
2 Khurdad Adar
1 Mohor Dae
422 THE Grand Cosmogenical Chart. ""
7. The Constituents of the Arvahi Alam viz.
Three "Zreh" or ocean-like receptacles by name –
“Varkash", “Frakhan-kart” and "Puitik".
Seven "Dakhyu" or provinces of the jurisdiction of the angel
"Meher”, by name -
“Aiwi-dakhyu, Antare-dakhyu, A-dakhyu, Upairi-dakhyu,
Adairi-dakhyu, Pairi-dakhyu and Aipi-dakhyu."
8. The transition stage of the soul from the Arvahi to the Jermani
Alam, and the station overseered by “Behman-Shani” i.e., Coadjutor
of Behman known in Avesta as "Khratu-kato” or
Pahlavi “Kar-i-Kherad" i.e. Wisdom-Activity where the
grand achievement of "Khaetvadatha" or Union of Spiritual
Masculinity and Spiritual Femininity is necessarily carried
out, and this station is dominated by “Atar-Mino-Karko" or
Fire Energy of Spiritual Causation, where both the energies of
"Geush Urvan” and “Geush Tashan" go on in their ceaseless
9. The Four Planes of "Akhshichan" i.e. Ultra-physical elements
of matter viz.
“Kurrat-ul-Asir" i.e. Plane of Ultra-physical Fire-Element with
the Energy “Atar-Mino-Karko."
“Kurrat-ul-Nasim" i.e. Plane of Ultra-physical Air-Element with
the Energy “Atar-Vazishta.”.
“Kurrat-ul-Ma" i.e. Plane of Ultra-physical Water-Element with
the Energy “Atar-Urvazishta” of the first order.
“Kurrat-ul-Ard" i.e. Plane of Ultra-physical Earth-Element with
the Energy "Atar-Spenishta” of the first order.
“Jesmani Alam” i.e. PHYSICAL PLANE, AND Beyond. 423
10. The Six "Keshvar" or Regions, for the Passage of the
Soul through, in its Unfoldment March viz: -
"Vidada-fshu” "Fradada-fshu,” "Savahi" "Arezahi,"
"Vouru-Zareshti," “Vouru-Bareshti."
11. The stations for the Soul's sojourn, according to the resultant
"Kerdar” of its Life-Account in the physical world, after its
departure therefrom, viz.-
“Var-i-Jam-Kard," "Dadar-i-Gehan," “Vahishtem-Ahum-
Ashaonam,” “Kang-daez," “Ganjish,” “Apakhtara.”
12. The constituents of the “Jesmani Alam” or the Physical Plane,
known by the name "Khanirath-Bami" and regarded as the
seventh “Keshvar.” This includes “Mavalid-i-Salase” or the
three offspring of the Earth i.e. the three Kingdoms viz.,
“Haevanat" i.e. the Animal Kingdom with its two branches of
“Natek” i.e. mankind having articulate speech, and “Motlak”
i.e. dumb brutes; "Nabatat” i.e. the Vegetable Kingdom, and
“Jamatat” i.e. the Mineral Kingdom. The "Haevanat-i-
Natek” possess the Fire Energy “Atash-Vohufryan" of the
first order with its four concomitant Energies viz. “Atash-i-
Dara,” "Atash-i-Nairyosang," “Atash-i-Khoreh," and “Atashi-
Frah.” The “Haevanat-i-Motlak” possess "Atash-i-
Vohufryan” of the second order. The Fire Energy of the
"Nabatat” is the "Atar-Urvazishta” of the second order and
that of the “Jamatat” is the “Atar-Spenishta” of the second
13. The One Thousand and One Staotic Currents constantly flowing
from the fountain-source of “Ahuna-Var” or the Tune
Celestial, - these Staotic Currents being known in Avesta as
"Hazanghrem Vairyanam" in the Aban Yasht.
14. The Functions of all “Amesha Spend” and “Yazad," "Gatha,"
“Mino,” "Dae" and other Intelligences in the grand
administration of the Entire Universe.
424 ATTUNEMENT WITH 15 “Atash" of Nature THROUGH Atash-i-Behram.
15. All the processes of attunement with the Staotic Currents
through the Medium of the greatest Angel "Sraosha” both
during the soul's short sojourn here by a life of strict Ashoi, and
after the soul’s departure by means of the various rituals viz.,
"Vendidad," “Nirangdin," "Yzashne," "Baj," "Afringan," etc.,
16. The most majestic medium of ritualistic attunement between
this physical world and the unseen world is known as “Atash-
Varharan” or “Atash Behram.” This venerable Fire Energy
Atash-Behram is specially prepared with a laborious and
elaborate ritual, and when finally made ready it possesses the
power of attunement by means of Staotic Laws with all the 15
Fire Energies enumerated above, viz., two of the Minoi Alam,
four of the Jirmani Alam, four of the Arvahi Alam and five of
the Jesmani Alam. The "Ushtana" or Vital Energy of these
Fifteen Natural Fire Energies is accumulated into the
Artificial Ritualistic Venerable Fire "Atash-Behram," and this
Sixteenth Fire “Atash-Behram," serves as the Ushtanic
Battery for the transmission of the aggregate, Staotic effect of
the rituals of the Zoroastrians to the unseen world, and of the
Staotic currents from the unseen world to the physical world
for the prosperity and happiness and peace of the Zoroastrians
in the physical world.
The “Mazdayacnian and Zoroastrian” Law which teaches about all
these, and which covers all the sciences of theUniverse, which in short
shows the entire track of the Soul's double March of Infoldment and
Unfoldment-is termed "Daena" in the Avesta and "Din" in Pahlavi. It is
Religion, Science, Theology, Philosophy, Occultism, Metaphysics,
Esotericism and what not. The literal meaning of the word “Daena”
(from Av. Di = to see + na = abstract noun suffix + a = instrumental
suffix) is “the medium of seeing” or revelation. "Daena" as a whole
therefore enables the soul to see What is in nature. It has two
Avesta Technical Terms TO BE DECIPHERED BY Staota-laws. 425
aspects “Daena-i-Mazdayacni” and “Daena-i-Zarathushtri" being
two main generic Laws respectively of Infoldment of Soul into Matter
or Soul's Downward March, and of Unfoldment of Soul from Matter or
Soul's Upward March towards its Final Destination.
(C) Philology and the result of Avesta Studies.
The writer of Zoroastrian Theology seems to believe that there can
be no knowledge of the Zoroastrian religion beyond the pale of the
modern philological study of Avesta regarded as an ordinary language
of every day social intercourse. We have seen ere now that the
philological study is not the exclusive vehicle of understanding the
salient features and the essential spirit of Zoroastrianism. Philology as
we have already seen has proved to be a very feeble attempt at reading
the meaning of Avesta words and sentences with the help of grammar
fabricated in pursuance of the sister-language Sanskrit. Philology has
not given the meanings of Avesta words and phrases in one way, but
there are as many renderings as there are philologists or perhaps more.
The philologists seem to forget that Avesta is teeming with technical
terms to so great an extent that even the prefixes and suffixes and other
terminations and post-positions have their own specified concepts and
connotations under different contexts. Avesta is based entirely on the
Laws of "Staota" or Vibration-colours, and being a colour-language of
the most abstruse type, it cannot be properly deciphered except by the
rules of Staota-Yacna.
We shall therefore see how far the writer of Zoroastrian Theology
is correct when he gives out his learned opinions on the method of
Avestan studies. He has written a special chapter under the heading
"Introduction of the Western Method of Iranian Scholarship in India."
(i) On p. 334 he says –
“To K. R. Kama, Parsi pioneer of the Iranian studies on Western lines in India
who had studied the Avestan texts in Europe under the German savant Spiegel, is due
the credit of introducing among Parsi scholars the
426 PHILOLOGY-SYSTEM STARTING WITH Startling Speculations.
science of comparative philology and the scientific method of interpreting their
sacred books. The inauguration of this new era belongs to the ear part of the second
half of the last century. Up to that time the Avesta texts had been almost wholly
interpreted by the Zoroastrian authorities through the help of their Pahlavi
translations. The original Avestan texts had remained largely unintelligible without
the Pahlavi version………Such in short, was the deplorable state of Parsi scholarship
when comparative philology came to its aid from the West and opened a new era of
critical study in the field of Iranian researches."
(ii.) On p. 335 he proceeds under the heading "Textual
criticism brings startling revelations for the Parsis." -
"The first outcome of the critical study of the Avestan literature, ……..was the
discovery made by the Western scholars that the grammar, style and internal
evidence of the extant Avestan texts show that they were not composed at a single
period and by one person, but that they were the products of many persons who
worked at various times. Scholars such as these undertook to determine the
approximate dates of the component parts of the Avesta. The Gathas were shown to
be the oldest in time of composition and the authorship of a considerable portion , if
not all, of these hymns was ascribed to Zoroaster himself……….The masses could
not be weaned from the false beliefs that loomed large in their eyes, and thus, the
scholars maintained, many practices abolished by Zoroaster were later resuscitate
by the clergy. Startling indeed were these new ideas that philological researches
brought to the Parsis who had been accustomed to attribute indiscriminately all
Avestan compositions to Zoroaster himself and who never approached their own
sacred books with a historical perspective."
(iii.) Under the heading “Back to the Gathas was the war-cry of
the new school” on p. 386 he continues -
“This critical estimate of their scriptures by the Iranian scholars of the West
greatly influenced the Young Parsi scholars in India. They no hailed the Gathas as
providing a self-sufficient religious system in themselves. They claimed to have
discovered the only true mirror in which the genuine Zoroastrian teachings were
reflected. The later Avestan texts were declared to render nugatory the pristine
( iv.) Then on p. 326 he says -
"The Sanskrit, Persian and Gujarati translators had all successively made their
renderings on the basis of the traditional Pahlavi version; it was
ANQUETIL'S 'Grotesque Stuff' OWING TO Meagre Extant Avesta. 427
left for the modern philologists to approach the Avestan texts in the original itself,
independently of the Pahlavi rendering though aided by it, and through the methods of
strict linguistic science to give an independent and first-hand translation of the original
Avesta texts."
(v) On p.321 while speaking about "the introduction of Iranian studies
in the West" he says -
“The inexorable, decree of Providence had ruled that a new light from the West
should dispel the darkness that had shrouded the pages of the sacred scriptures for ages,
and add to their better understanding and elucidation………………To the energetic
Frenchman, Anquetil du Perron, is due the credit of making the first systematic attempt
to study the Avestan texts and place their contents before the Western
world………..Having acquired from Dastur Darab, the high priest of the Parsis of
Surat, what inadequate knowledge he could get in those days, he returned home after
six years of strenuous work and published the result of his studies in three quarto
volumes in 1771…………One school of eminent scholars in Europe declined to attach
any weight to the Frenchman's work, and denied that the grotesque stuff that he had
placed before the world could ever be the work of so great a thinker and sage as
Zoroaster, stoutly maintaining that Anquetil's Avesta was either a forgery or that he had
been duped by the Indian Parsi Mobads. The falseness of this view, however, was
ultimately shown. The disinterested labours of various scholars during the subsequent
years fully substantiated Anquetil's pioneer work; and when the closer affinity between
the langnage of the Avesta and Sanskrit became generally known, the sacred texts
began to be studied in the light of comparative philology, and the authenticity of the
Avesta was completely proved."
(vi) On p. 302 he speaks of the grossest ignorance and
darkness of the Zoroastrian community in Persia -
" The mother country today has to look to her thriving children living in India for
religious instruction, and for masters from the adopted land able to teach the
Zoroastrian Persians themselves."
(vii) Under the heading “An illiterate priesthood failed to
satisfy the intellectual wants of the enlightened youth”
on p. 332 he says -
“The Parsi priesthood had long before degenerated into ignorance...... The priest
hitherto had acted as an Intercessor between the layman and Ormazd, and through
elaborate ritual had undertaken to gain for him divine help, being duly paid to recite
penitential prayers for the expiation of the sins of the living, and to sacrifice for the
purchase of paradise for the dead. The
428 WRITER'S DISLIKE FOR Zoroastrian Esotericism.
Youth of the new school argued that there was no more need of the Mobad's mediation
between him and his Heavenly Father……………The youth now grew up without
religious instruction, and gradual1y gravitated towards indifferentism. The apathy,
callousness, and disregard towards religion on the part of the educated youth waxed
stronger day by day, and culminated in an atmosphere of agnosticism that withered the
beliefs in which they were brought up. Agnosticism became the threatening evil of the
(viii) On p. 350 he says respecting the well-meant ( ! ) efforts of
the new school –
"The reformers were termed the Parsi Protestants and were charged with thinking,
in terms of Christianity. They were said to be fired by the sole ambition of being
original, and of setting at naught the achievements of their elders for the last three
thousand years. The reformers replied that they were simply looking to antiquity for
models for their conduct, and were profiting solely by the vast experience of the past.
But at the same time, they rejoined, the orthodox should remember that the ancients
had tackled the religious and ceremonial questions that arose in their own days
according to light that had prevailed in the past. Those of that day had not done the
thinking for all times to come, with injunctions to the future generations to act in strict
accordance with them."
(ix) Speaking in contravention of the esoteric tendency of
Zoroastrianism he says on p. 366 -
"It is far too early to predict in what direction the esoteric movement is causing
the community to drift. But the growing fondness for occult mystery, the strong passion
for the marvelous and pursuit after the visionary and impracticable, the learning
towards the ascetic virtues, do not argue well for the community…………………..It is
a bad theory of life that discourages the robust good sense of the community and
reduces its energy by weakening its will-power. The disappearance of the communal
character would in the end be disastrous. When the whole Indian world is in the throes
of stupendous intellectual upheaval, it is sad to witness a class of enlightened youths
cultivating credulity and working its mind into a morbid state by which it loses its grip
of commonsense and deceives itself with fond delusions.
(x) Lastly on p. 350 he satirizes the religious practice of using
the urine of cattle in the name of the reformers as under -
" The very first thing that a Parsi is expected to do immediately after leaving his
bed is to take a handful of bull’s or cow's, or she-goat's urine, and upon reciting a spell
composed in Pazand, to rub it over his face, hands, and
Holy Pahlavi Dasturs FAR SUPERIOR TO CYNIC Philologists. 429
feet. The reformer declared that the filthy practice was highly objectionable, and
should be done away with. This shocked the sentiment of righteousness in the ortbodox
believer. He retorted that the liquid had great purifying qualities, and its use should be
continued. The reformer replied that it may indeed have served as a disinfectant for
humanity in its infancy, but in these days of better and purer appliances for bodily
cleanliness we need no more of the dirty stuff. But the liquid, expostulated the
orthodox, had other latent qualities too. It repels the demoniac powers that happen to
take possession of man during sleep; what greater proof, in truth, of its mysterious
power can be had than the fact that when once consecrated it never becomes putrid?”
It is needless to multiply here such references from the book of
Zoroastrian Theology to the grand ( ! ) results ( ! ) achieved by the
scientific method of translating Avesta with a willful neglect of Pahlavi
glosses. It is very ridiculous to speak of the new era of the critical study
of Avesta despite sheer ignorance of the basic rules of Staota
overpowering the critics themselves. The Dasturs of the Sassanian
times such as Adarbad Mahrespand, Arda Viraf, and Tansar, and Adar
Frobak who have by their indefatigable labours obliged ourselves their
posterity with the bequest of some outlines of the main clues to the
understanding of the Zoroastrian Religion of the 21 Nasks, were in all
certainty superior to us in their mental, spiritual and devotional
qualifications for the genuine interpretation of Zoroastrian scriptures.
They had some glimpses of the glorious treasure of the 21 Nasks of
Zoroaster, and owing to their genuine faith and strict observance of the
Khoreh laws of Ashoi, they were able to employ a considerable amount
of knowledge of Staota-laws in their interpretations of Avesta and
Pahlavi. This is at least convincing to us that the Pahlavi interpreters of
Avesta have not dared to speculate as the scientific philologists have
done upon the subject-matter of Zoroastrian teachings. The Pahlavi
Dasturs have been sincere in their faithful renderings and have not
employed cynicism, agnosticism, and ridicule of the ritualistic and
other mandates of Zoroaster. They have not excluded Vendidad Yacna,
Yashts etc., from the edifice of the original Zoroastrian scriptures. They
have not given any different dates of the com430
position of the various components of Avesta Scriptures. As the first
outcome of their study they have never divided Avesta into periods as
the new thought school of modern upstarts have done. The Pahlavi
Dasturs never tried to dislocate the ignorant co-religionists from the
joints of faith in their religious mandates by declaring that Zoroaster
had given only the Gathas and that the other Avesta contained an
unintelligible mass of practices which had been pre-Zoroastrian, which
had been abolished by Zoroaster, and which had been restored by the
duping clergy long after Zoroaster. The Pahlavi Dasturs never
stigmatized a belief in the 21 Nasks of Zoroaster being the original
source of all Avesta Scriptures as a false belief of the masses. We do
not understand at all why the writer of Zoroastrian Theology pays
undue respects to the so-called scientific method of speculative system
of Avesta studies with the most improper invectives hurled against the
pious Pahlavi school of Zoroastrian scriptures. The writer has the
audacity even to say that the Indians hailed the Gathas as the only selfsufficient
Zoroastrian religion, and that they learnt parrot-wise that the
pristine purity of the Gathas was rendered nugatory by the
circumvention of the other Avesta. Is this not complete credulity and
blind belief? Are not the rationalistic Indian students of Avesta
ashamed of being led away by the fashionable fascination of the
outcome of Western system of Avesta studies? We have seen within the
last fifty years of this linguistic science of Avesta studies that it has
produced absurd, weird and ridiculous renderings of most of the
Avestan texts, and that it has thus completely failed to fulfill the
expectations of the Parsi community. Instead of teaching faith, decorum
and veneration for the world's greatest prophet and his religion, it has
persuaded, nay even prevailed upon, the Young generation to choose
and accept a queer form of religion of physical ease and materialistic
gain and comfort at the irreparable loss of spiritual advancement and
happiness. The writer depreciates the Sanskrit and Persian versions of
the Avesta texts, which are mainly based on Pahlavi authorities, as
inferior to the recent philological renderings. Those who have gone
through the philological, translations of Gathas, Vendidad, Yashts,
131 A PROPORTION - Khshnoom : Philology:: Kernel: Husks.
etc., frankly admit that instead of strengthening their respect and faith
for the Zoroastrian religion, they are inclined to be unbelievers and
cynical sceptics after a reading of the speculations of Avesta
philologists. This is because philology merely presents stray husks of
the various nuts and fruits of Zoroastrian scriptures in the absence of
knowledge of the Laws of Staota, which alone can supply the
respective kernel relating to the various subjects. Hence we see that
philology upto now has been made an abuse of, but we must remember
that the abuse of a thing does not take away its use. Philology is badly
in need of the supplementary help of the "Khshnoom" line of study of
Zoroastrian scriptures, and when once the kernel of the entire
systematic crop of Zoroastrian knowledge has been supplied from the
deep sub-strata of “Khshnoom,” the husks presented by philology will
have their own utility of preserving the kernel to some extent against
the destructive effect of time.
In fact to judge impartially the religious education of the Indian
Parsis is a disgrace to the intellectual enlightenment in other respects of
secular branches of knowledge. A Parsi doctor, a lawyer, an engineer,
an economist, a politician, an educationist, a public speaker, nay a
journalist, without some degree of essential knowledge of the religion
in which he is born is entirely useless to the community from the point
of' view of the Spiritual Upliftment of the Community in its grand
march towards "Garo-nmana," its own native abode. Learning for the
sake of earning money, and living for the sake of enjoying worldliness
to the full, do not imply the object of man's life on earth. Life for the
sake of the Soul, body for the soul, learning for the soul's progress,
earning money for the soul’s good, - in fact all the activities of our life
ought to be guided by the underlying motive of the betterment of the
Soul. It is vain boast to say that the Indian Parsis are better off in
religious training than their Iranian co-religionists, without a statistical
inquiry having been made. Under the present circumstances it must be
plainly admitted that the Indian Parsis including even the handful of socalled
Avesta students are as ignorant of the most elementary principles
of Zoroastrianism as the unfortunate Iranian
482 Faith & Practice SUPERIOR TO infidelity & Knowledge.
co-religionists. The-present condition of the Avesta scriptures as we
have so often seen, does not allow us in the first place to have a camera
obscura view of the Zoroastrian Religion as a. whole. The writer of
Zoroastrian Theology also admits that when Anquetil du Perron first
brought out his work collected from the extant Avesta texts, it was
pronounced to be ‘grotesque stuff’ by the Europian school, even
creating a misgiving that such could not have been the work of so great
a thinker as Zoroaster. Such was the case and we are not at all
surprised to see the same, when we come across the summary of the 21
Nasks, and the queer mutilated form in which the extant remnant
Avesta texts have been picked up here and there from some of the
Nasks. Under such disappointing circumstances the student of
Zoroastrian religion ought to be very discretional and humble in his
progress, and instead of apathy, indifferentism, callousness and
agnosticism as a result of Avestan studies, he ought to learn faith,
devotion and practice of as many laws of Ashoi as he is fortunate to
have in his ken. He ought to desist from a cruel sarcasm upon the coreligionist
priesthood with unmeaning and unmannerly expressions
such as the "priest's purchase of paradise" etc. Very often the practical
officiating priest is far better and more advanced in spirituality than the
much-talking educated Avesta philologist, for in nature doers and not
talkers are appreciated and fitly rewarded. The priest who performs all
the rituals with strict observance of the tenets of Khoreh and Ashoi is
far superior in the profession of Zoroastrianism to a cynical student of
Avesta language who puts a spoke to the wheel of the pure faith and
devotion of his coreligionists by means of empty arguments and
hollow high-sounding hallucinations gathered from an improper excess
of intellectual speculation. In the profession of religion faith is the first
requisite, and the writer himself speaks pro need of devotion on p. 33.
under the heading "The discipline of the individual in righteousness"
thus :-
“Man has to keep himself pure and clean bodily, mentally, and spiritually. Purity
of mind and body is the best thing for man in life. It strengthens righteousness and
sanctity. The blending of the virtues of Vohu Manah and Armaiti in the life of man
makes him righteous. The fusion of
the noble qualities both of the head and the heart makes the individual righteous. Vohu
Manah purifies the mind, Armaiti sanctifies the heart. Vohu Manah's knowledge
enlightens the mind, Armaiti's devotion ennobles it. Without knowledge man is poor
indeed, but without devotion he courts death in spirit. Knowledge teaches the spirit the
philosophy of life, devotion lends to the spirit the zest to act it, and the true religion
begins with this acting. The philosopher may think of Ahura Mazda, the metaphysician
may speculate about his origin, but the devout actually imitates him in
action………………The wise man knows Mazda, the devout owns Mazda; and the
blending of the virtues of both makes man the consummate one, the saint, the ashavan,
or righteous one.”
Hence it is seen that faith is quite different from credulity. Faith is
natural and spontaneous overflow of sincere powerful devotion; credulity is
unnatural and imposed from outside simply out of false consideration or
respect for great men of learning and education. Occultism and mysticism
never lead to credulity. Belief in the existence of soul after the departure
from the physical body, its state after death, all the unseen laws of nature at
work, the functions of angels and other spiritual unseen intelligences, does
not imply credulity. Very few souls who are fortunate enough to have
sincere immaculated faith and devotion-souls who are not derailed from the
lines of Spiritual Progress-can be naturally led to believe in mysticism and
occult laws of nature. On the contrary the majority who are derailed from
the lines of Unfoldment, who live only for the sake of the enjoyment of this
world, who laugh out things beyond the power of physical vision, have in
the absence of faith to lean upon credulity, and believe what the
ostentatious persons have pronounced to be right. The Avesta philologists
of India have been deluded by the false sense of shame and feeling of
respect for the West, and it is this credulous rationalism of the writer of
Zoroastrian Theology that has enabled him to produce a work of false,
delusions imposed upon the Indian philological school by the new thought
Western school of Avesta students.
It is as a result of this absurd credulity that he laughs out the basic
mandate of physical and ultra-physical purity-of applying "Gaomaeza"
or bull's urine to the body. It is very revolting to see the writer of
Zoroastrian Theology bringing out his work in the land of the science of
electricity and
434 EFFICACY OF "Gaomaeza" FROM "Chakhra” & “Khoreh” STANDPOINTS
magnetism and at the same time ridiculing outright the Zoroastrian tenets
based on the laws of electricity and magnetism, The fresh ordinary
"Gaomaeza'" or bull's urine is declared to possess a certain amount of
purifying magnetic force which has exquisite effect in rendering the
"Khoreh" of a person pure and wholesome. The sixteen "Chakhra" or
ultra-physical centres in the “Kehrpa” also work in the animal Kingdom,
but the "Chakhra” are differently located in men as well as in the different
genera and species of lower animals. Men's urine is regarded as "Hikhra"
or "Heher-Nasu," on account of the thirteenth centre located on the human
sexual organ. The functions of all the sixteen "Chakhra" are varied
according to the different texture of each of these. The urine of no other
animals is to be employed for the purification of "Khoreh" except that of
" Gao" or Cow-kind. This is because the twelfth "Chakhra" which has the
characteristic property of receiving pure “Khastra” or electric current from
the reservoir of nature is located on the sexual organs of the "Gao-species"
of animals. Hence the use of "Gao-maeza" or urine of "Gao" which passes
out with the pure "Khastric" effect of the twelfth "Chakhra" located on the
sexual organs of that species, is enjoined upon all Zoroastrians. The
invisible" Khastra " in the "Gaomaeza" begins to vanish with the effect of
atmosphere on it, and after an interval of fifty-four “Hathra” or seventytwo
hours the “Khastra” totally disappears, and "Hariri" or microbes
begin to germinate and multiply. Thus the “Gaomaeza" begins to rot and
emits annoying stench after three days, and renders itself useless for
application. Zoroaster with his unsurpassed "Asn-i-Vir" has taught an
elaborate process of preserving this "Khastra" of “Gaomaeza” intact and
of thus rendering "Gaomaeza" air-proof, so that no "Hariri" or germs
might take rise therein for years and years together. The ceremony known
as "Nirangdin" which lasts for several days has to be performed over
"Gaomaeza." While passing through this elaborate ritual, the "Gaomaeza,"
is made to grab the vibration-staotic effect of Avesta Manthra recital (a
systematic arranged mixture of Yacna, Visparad, Vendidad, and Gathas
according to the Staotic
rules of Permutations and Combinations), and the efficacy of Avesta
Manthra especially of “Ashem Vohu" and “Yatha Ahu Vairyo" recited
at the time of inserting tiny pebbles into the “Gaomaeza," is able to
preserve the original “Khastra” or magnetic current therein for years
together. This "Gaomaeza" of the "Nirangdin" ceremony or as it is
briefly termed "Nirang" in popular parlance is the basis of all
Zoroastrian ritua1s. No "Navjote", or initiation ceremony of a born
Zoroastrian child with Sudrah and Kusti, can be legitimately performed
without this "Nirang," which the child is made to sip three times while
undergoing the purificatory ceremony of initiation. No "Barshnoom" or
Higher Purificatory ceremony can be performed in the absence of this
"Nirang," and without "Barshnoon" no ceremony can be performed by
anybody. The efficacy of ordinary "Gaomaeza" and of special "Nirang"
is a very wide subject, which cannot be treated in details here in
passing. But even from these bare outline traces depicted here the
reader will be able to learn that the writer of Zoroastrian Theology aims
a deathblow to all the Zoroastrian rituals and canons of Ashoi when he
unceremoniously attacks the Vendidad farman of the application of
Gaomaeza as a "filthy practice," and the Gaomaeza itself as the “dirty
stuff.” The writer seems further to wantonly satirize the belief in the
permanent purity of "Nirang." or consecrated "Gaomaeza" by his
surprise at the idea of its never becoming putrid when once it is
consecrated. We must however remember that according to the Laws of
"Khastra" propounded in the Zoroastrian Religion, the Spring-water
drink, Haoma-drink, Milk-drink, and Nirang-drink have their own
proper efficacy in proportion to the different intensities of "Frado" and
"Khastra." in each of these for rendering help to the Soul in the march
for “Uru” or unfoldment. The "Gaomaeza" having got the "Khastric"
property of purifying the “Khoreh” or aura of a person applying it, has
been known by the very significant expression in Pahlavi, Pazend and
Persian – “Ab-i-Zar” – or golden water. How touching and revolting it
would be for a considerate reader to see the painful contrast between
the two expressions "dirty stuff" as the outcome of faithless, undevotional
but rational ( ! ) Western glare of philological school of
Avesta study, and
the “Ab-i-Zar" or “Golden Water” as the natural result of devotional,
heartfelt, sincere meditation and practice of the unostentatious humble
students of Pahlavi, Pazend and Persian school of Avesta study.
We see therefore that patent inquiry and scientific research into the
field of Zoroastrian studies are badly wanting among the public pseudoteachers
of Zoroastrianism. The Zoroastrian Religion is the immutable
universal law of nature with its infinite aspects of various laws in its
various departments. The religion of Zoroaster is the same throughout
all times, for it has been thought out by the unique soul for all times. The
reformers who dare to say that some few moral precepts taught in the
Gathas constitute the religion of Zoroaster, and that all the elaborate
canons of Ashoi and Ritualism have been merely unmeaning stuff
thought out by the clergy of post-Zoroastrian times; that in this age of
education and progress the reformers are far superior to their fathers
who were fools to multiply all these unnecessary prescriptions for every
day life; that the reformers are better able to see what they need most for
their own welfare than their predecessors who had nothing to prescribe
but "Nirang" and "Gaomaeza" like dirty stuff – are to say the least
heretics and destructivists of the first rate under the quaint and false
guise of the high-sounding and hollow-making name of Avesta students.
"One man's meat is another man's poison," and this adage is quite
applicable to the profession of one's religion. Every one, male or female,
must know with faith and devotion what is taught in one's own religion,
and it is incumbent on everyone to follow in practice the tenets of the
religion in which one is born. A Zoroastrian ought to observe all the
tenets of Ashoi taught in the Zoroastrian religion. All the great religions,
of the world have their own gradations serving as steps for the evolution
of various souls of indefinite orders. The religions have as their basis the
“Khao" or fountain-source, and all other religions are based on only
three “Khao” except the Zoroastrian religion, which has four “Khao" as
its foundation-stones. The three "Khao" common to all other religions
are termed in Avesta “Asmo-khao,”
"Ashno-khao” and "Erezoish-khao” which have different intensities
according to the different grades of each of these religions. Besides these
three "Khao” of supreme intensity, the Zoroastrian religion being the
final universal law of unfoldment necessitates a fourth “Khao” termed
"Ashahe-Khao" in the Avesta. All these "Khao" require volume-fuls of
explanation, and the knowledge of "Khao" is very essential for a student
of comparative religions. The three "Khao” above-mentioned are again
different in degrees of depth according to the "Jirm" to which the
particular religion belongs. The five great religions of the world are
inseparably connected with the five "Jirm" or luminaries. The Zoroastrian
Law pertains to "Barjis" or Jupiter, the Hinduism and Buddhism - with all
its sects belongs to "Tarad" or Mercury, the Islam belongs to "Hasam" or
Mars, the "Mosesism" belongs to "Nahid" or Venus, and the Christianity
belongs to "Kaevan" or Saturn.
Thus with the exception of the two "Jirm," "Shams" or the Sun,
and "Dae" or the moon which play an important part in the religions of
all the other "Jirm ", the five “Jirm” are respectively connected with the
five great religions of the world as stated above. The Zoroastrian
religion, which pertains to the “Jirm Barjis” with the Fire Energy "Atar-
Froba" par excellence, requires a strict adherence to “Ashabe Khao”
from its followers. It is a law of nature that moral responsibility
increases with moral greatness, and the born follower of Zoroastrianism
having to undergo the final round of incarnation here on earth is obliged
to lead the earthly life in strict accordance with all the scrupulous
details of “Ashahe Khao" or seventy-two principles of Ashoi. Hence the
Avesta student of philology being ignorant of the fundamental basis of
"Khao" of all religions, and having never dreamt of the extra "Ashahe-
Khao" of the Zoroastrian Law, laughs out the main springs of
"Khoreh"-preservation such as Gaomaeza, Nirang, and other injunctions
of "Nish-nash-i-Druj.” A senseless imitation of the life of aliens around
us in India-adoption of smoking, removal of cap and head-covering by
both the sexes, no observance of rules of magnetic purity during
menstruation and seminal discharges, indiscriminate
animal diet, etc. etc., - will ultimately lead the community to its
extinction on account of the entire forgetfulness of the "Ashahe-Khao"
of the Zoroastrian Law. If the writer of Zoroastrian Theology had learnt
about the "Ashahe Khao" i.e. fountain-source of Piety required in the
Zoroastrian life-leading, he would not have satirized the most
efficacious khoreh-disinfectant by the meaningless phrase “dirty stuff.”
To conclude therefore we shall bear in mind the following main
points -
(i) The cry for reform in the Zoroastrian religion implies
dangerous and mischievous mutilation of the most excellent
religion of Zoroaster (“Daena-i-Berezishta”).
(ii) Progress in religion does not necessitate whimsical changes in
the universal Law of Zoroaster in order to render these
changes suitable to the worldliness of the so-called
(iii) Zoroastrian Law spontaneously and necessarily implies the
collective esoteric knowledge of all the unseen laws and
forces in nature.
(iv) Zoroastrian occult science must never be confounded with the
eclecticism or what is called modern theosophy.
(v) The Gathic “Khshnoom” of the “Saoshyants” is the only key to
the proper exposition of the Zoroastrian revealed religion.
(vi) Comparative philology is merely an ineffectual exertion to
understand the Zoroastrian religion the treasures of which can
be brought to the surface only by a skilled diver into the
depths of this vast ocean of knowledge.
(vii) Apathy, cynicism, agnosticism, scepticism, indifferentism and
atheism, are the only results achieved by the last fifty years of
philological study of the Zoroastrian Law as evinced from the
book of Zoroastrian Theology.
(ix) The Vendidad injunction of "Gaomaeza" and such other
mandates, are all based on the scientific reasons of their
practical utility and efficacy, and in the absence of a
knowledge of the most elementary principles of modern
science in all its indefinite numbers of branches, it is the
bounden duty of the student of Avesta, if he wants sincerely
to serve his community, to wait, for it is very wisely said -
" They also serve who only stand and wait."
(viii) Not hasty and insincere ridicule of the most significant
principles of Zoroastrianism, but patient, humble and
sincere yearning after the right original knowledge thereof,
will enable the student to be the torch-bearer for the
ignorant co-religionists groping in the dark.

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